

IntroductionWe discuss how to compute the gradient in coordinate systems like polar coordinates in which we can define orthogonal basis vectors . We also define derivatives of vector fields, the divergence and curl, and discuss the problem of representing functions of several variables so they can be visualized. Topics9.1 Derivatives of Vector Functions; the Divergence 9.2 The Curl 9.3 Visualizing Functions of Two Variables 9.4 The Gradient in Polar Coodinates and other Orthogonal Coordinate Systems 