

IntroductionThough a line integral on a path P is most easily evaluated when the integrand can be expressed as a gradient and the integral becomes a difference between values of a function at the endpoints of P, we here consider the process for reducing line integrals to ordinary ones. We also describe how to make a Surface flux integral into a two dimensional integral over an area in the plane. Topics23.1 Making a Line Integral into an Ordinary Integral 23.2 Examples 23.3 Practical Comments 