SOURCES | NOTES | CREDITS

SOURCES

Bibliography

Beurdeley, Cecile and Michel. Giuseppe Castiglione: A Jesuit Painter at the Court of the Chinese Emperor, transl. Michael Bullock (Rutland, Vt., and Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1971).

China: The Three Emperors, 1662–1795, Evelyn S. Rawski and Jessica Rawson, eds. (London: Royal Academy of the Arts, 2005).

“The Imperial Sale—Yuanmingyuan,” catalog (Christie’s Hong Kong, April 30, 2000).

“Kangxi, Empereur de Chine: 1662–1722. La Cité Interdite à Versailles,” exhibition catalog. Pierre Arizzoli-Clémentel, et al., contributors (Musée National du Chateau de Versailles, 27 Janvier9 Mai 2004. Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris 2004).

Landry-Deron, Isabelle. “Portraits croisés Kangxi et Louis XIV,” in “Kangxi, Empereur de Chine: 1662–1722. La Cité interdite à Versailles” (Musée national du chateau de Versailles, 27 janvier-9 mai 2004. Réunion des musées nationaux, Paris 2004), pp. 59-63.

Malone, Carroll Brown. History of the Summer Palaces under the Ch’ing Dynasty (Urbana: University of Illinois, 1934).

James A. Millward. "A Uyghur Muslim in Qianlong's Court: The Meanings of the Fragrant Concubine." Journal of Asian Studies 53:2 (May 1994).

Naquin, Susan. “Giuseppe Castiglione/Lang Shining: A Review Essay,” T’oung Pao 95 (2009), pp. 393-412.

Pirazzoli-T’Serstevens, Michèle. Giuseppe Castiglione, 1688-1766: Peintre et Architecte à la Cour de Chine (Paris: Thalia, 2007)

Qianlong yupin Yuanmingyuan 乾隆御品圓明園 (Qianlong’s Imperial treasure Yuanmingyuan), edited by Guo Daiheng 郭黛姮 (Hangzhou: Zhejiang guji chubanshe, 2007).

Sirén, Osvald. Gardens of China (New York: The Ronald Press, 1949).

Strassberg, Richard E., “War and Peace: Four Intercultural Landscapes,” in China on Paper: European and Chinese Works from the Late Sixteenth to the Early Nineteenth Century, Marcia Reed and Paola Demattè, eds. (Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute, 2007), pp. 88-137.

Wong, Young-tsu. A Paradise Lost: The Imperial Garden Yuanming Yuan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2001).

Worshiping the Ancestors: Chinese Commemorative Portraits, Jan Stuart and Evelyn S. Rawski, eds. (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2001).



LINKS
 

The 20 Engravings


“China on Paper: European and Chinese Works from the Late Sixteenth to the Early Nineteenth Century.” Exhibition, November 6, 2007–February 10, 2008 at the Getty Center.

“A Suite of Twenty Engravings of the Yuan Ming-Yuan Summer Palaces and Gardens of the Chinese Emperor Ch'ien Lung,” New York Public Library

“European Palaces at the Garden of Perfect Brightness,” engraver (printmaker): Yi Lantai (Chinese, active 1749 to 1786), MIT Department of Architecture; all 20 engravings.


Articles/Texts

“China and Europe Intertwined: A New View of the European Sector of the Chang Chun Yuan”

“The jing of line-method: a perspective garden in the Garden of Round Brightness,” PhD dissertation by Hui Zou, McGill School of Architecture, (c) 2005. This dissertation examines the history of the Western Multistoried-Buildings garden (Xiyang Lou) located within the Chinese imperial Garden of Round Brightness (Yuanming yuan) of the Qing dynasty.

Wikipedia: Xiyang Lou (Chinese: 西洋楼; pinyin: Xiyanglou; literally "Western mansion[s]"), are ruins of 18th-century European-style imperial buildings.

 

 
NOTES


Chapter 1

1. The major sources for the European palaces used in this essay are:

Malone, Carroll Brown. History of the Summer Palaces under the Ch’ing Dynasty (Urbana: University of Illinois, 1934).

Wong, Young-tsu. A Paradise Lost: The Imperial Garden Yuanming Yuan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2001).

Strassberg, Richard E., “War and Peace: Four Intercultural Landscapes,” in China on Paper: European and Chinese Works from the Late Sixteenth to the Early Nineteenth Century, Marcia Reed and Paola Demattè, eds. (Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute, 2007), pp. 88-137.

The quotation in this section is from Beurdeley, Cecile and Michel. Giuseppe Castiglione: A Jesuit Painter at the Court of the Chinese Emperor, transl. Michael Bullock (Rutland, Vt., and Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1971), p. 68, as cited by Wong, p. 60.

2. Strassberg, p. 120

3. Malone, p. 141

4. Strassberg, p. 107

5. Strassberg, p. 109

6. Quoted in Malone, p. 160

7. Landry-Deron, Isabelle. “Portraits croisés Kangxi et Louis XIV,” in Kangxi, Empereur de Chine: 1662-1722. La Cité interdite à Versailles (Musée national du chateau de Versailles, 27 janvier-9 mai 2004. Réunion des musées nationaux, Paris 2004), pp. 59-63. Other essays in this catalog document the fascinating cultural exchange between these two monarchs.

8. Strassberg, p. 120.

9. This album is discussed in China:The Three Emperors, 1662-1795, Evelyn S. Rawski and Jessica Rawson, eds. (London: Royal Academy of the Arts, 2005), pp. 429-30.

10. This painting isdiscussed in China:The Three Emperors, 1662-1795, Evelyn S. Rawski and Jessica Rawson, eds. (London: Royal Academy of the Arts, 2005), p. 405.

11. This painting is reproduced and discussed in Worshiping the Ancestors: Chinese Commemorative Portraits, Jan Stuart and Evelyn S. Rawski, eds. (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2001). In a recent exhibition of this painting (seen December 3, 2011), the Sackler Gallery states, “This portrait may reflect the young prince’s 1752 appointment as the head of the Imperial Workshops, which were engaged at the time in planning the new palaces.”


Chapter 2


1. Strassberg, p. 109

2. Strassberg, p. 120.

3. Wong, p. 63.

4. Malone, p.147, Wong, p. 61.

5. Wong, pp. 63.

6.Malone, pp. 149-154

7. Malone, p. 155.

8. Malone, p. 155.

9. Malone, pp. 155-6.

10. Wong, pp. 64-5. An apparent typographical error mistakes Louis XVI for Louis XV.

11. Wong, p. 64.

12. Malone, p. 159.

13. Malone, p. 159.



CREDITS

“The Garden of Perfect Brightness ll: The European Palaces and Pavilions of the Yuanmingyuan” was developed by Visualizing Cultures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and presented on MIT OpenCourseWare.

MIT Visualizing Cultures:
John W. Dower
Project Director
Emeritus Professor of History

Shigeru Miyagawa
Project Director
Professor of Linguistics
Kochi Prefecture-John Manjiro Professor of Japanese Language and Culture

Ellen Sebring
Creative Director

Scott Shunk
Program Director

Andrew Burstein
Media Designer

In collaboration with:
Lillian M. Li
Author, essay
Sara Lawrence Lightfoot Professor of History
Swarthmore College


SUPPORT

MIT Visualizing Cultures received generous funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Henry Luce Foundation, the Getty Foundation, Japan Foundation's Council for Global Partnership, National Endowment for the Humanities, and MIT's d'Arbeloff Fund for Innovation in Undergraduate Education and MIT Microsoft-funded iCampus project.

 

 
 


MIT Visualizing Cultures

On viewing images of a potentially disturbing nature: click here.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology © 2012 Visualizing Cultures  Creative Commons License   Creative Commons - some rights reserved


 
MIT Visualizing Cultures
The Garden of Perfect Brightness I
MIT Visualizing Cultures
The Garden of Perfect Brightness I
MIT Visualizing CulturesMenu
MIT Visualizing Cultures
Tweet
Units
The Garden of Perfect Brightness I
Essay
MIT Visualizing Cultures VC Units MIT Visualizing Cultures About VC VC Scholars Partner Institutions Outreach Events Contact Join Us Follow Us VC Units Essay Imperial Occidentalism The European Palaces Sources & Credits Imperial Occidentalism The European Palaces Sources & Credits Imperial Occidentalism The European Palaces Sources & Credits Units Icon View Text View Curriculae The Garden of Perfect Brightness II Visual Narratives Image Gallery The Garden of Perfect Brightness I The Garden of Perfect Brightness III MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing CulturesMIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing CulturesMIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing CulturesMIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing CulturesMIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing CulturesMIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing CulturesMIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures MIT Visualizing Cultures