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NOTES | SOURCES  |  CREDITS


On Dean Worcester’s Collection

After Dean Worcester’s death in 1924 and the closure of the Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes in the 1930s, the photographs in his collection—taken by Worcester, Frank Bourns, Charles Martin, and other anonymous photographers—were returned to the United States and now are held by the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology.


NOTES FOR CHAPTER 1

1. Dean Worcester, quoted in Benito M. Vergara, Displaying Filipinos: Photography and Colonialism in Early 20th Century Philippines (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1995), p. 38.

2. Cameron Forbes, quoted in ibid., p. 38.

3. Brinton, Daniel G. “Professor Blumentritt’s Studies of the Philippines,” American Anthropologist 1 (January 1899): p. 122.

4. Worcester, Dean C. “The Non-Christian Peoples of the Philippine Islands,” National Geographic 24 (November 1913), p. 1157.

5. Sullivan, Rodney J. Exemplar of Americanism: The Philippine Career of Dean C. Worcester (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, 1991), p. 154.

6. Worcester, Dean C. The Philippines Past and Present (New York: Macmillan, 1930), p. 89.

7. Worcester, Dean C. “Knotty Problems of the Philippines,” Cenury Magazine 34 (October 1898), p. 876.


NOTES FOR CHAPTER 2

1. Hutterer, Karl L. “Dean C. Worcester and Philippine Anthropology,” Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 6 no. 3 (1978), p. 142.


NOTES FOR CHAPTER 3

1. Hutterer, Karl L. “Dean C. Worcester and Philippine Anthropology,” Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 6 no. 3 (1978), p. 151.

2. Chamberlin, Frederick. The Philippine Problem, 1898-1913 (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1913), p. 159.

3. Jenks, Albert Ernest. Rev. of Dean C. Worcester, The Non-Christian Tribes of Northern Luzon, American Anthropologist 9 (September 1907): p. 592.

4. Dean C. Worcester, June 17, 1901 diary entry, quoted in Mark Rice, “His Name Was Don Francisco Muro: Reconstructing an Image of American Imperialism,” American Quarterly 62 (March 2010), p. 60.


NOTES FOR CHAPTER 4

1. “Calls Wild Men Our Wards,” New York Times, December 31, 1913, p. 7.

2. Dean C. Worcester, February 6, 1901 diary entry, quoted in Mark Rice, “His Name Was Don Francisco Muro: Reconstructing an Image of American Imperialism,” American Quarterly 62 (March 2010): p. 58.

3. Dean C. Worcester, quoted in ibid., p. 70.


NOTES FOR CHAPTER 5

1. Blount, James H. The American Occupation of the Philippines, 1898-1912 (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1912), pp. 573-578.

2. Dean C. Worcester, quoted in Mark Rice, “His Name Was Don Francisco Muro: Reconstructing an Image of American Imperialism,” American Quarterly 62 (March 2010), p. 60.

3. Worcester, Dean C. The Philippine Islands and Their People (New York: Macmillan, 1898), pp. 192-197.

4. Kramer, Paul A. The Blood of Government: Race, Empire, the United States, and the Philippines (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996), p. 375.

5. Vicente Ilustre, quoted in Karl L. Hutterer, “Dean C. Worcester and Philippine Anthropology,” Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 6 no. 3 (1978), p. 141.

6. Dean C. Worcester, quoted in Rice, “His Name Was Don Francisco Muro,” p. 73.




SOURCES

Further Reading:

Colonialism and Photography

Beukers, Alan. Exotic Postcards: The Lure of Distant Lands (New York: Thames and Hudson, 2007).

Brown, Michael F. Who Owns Native Culture? (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003).

Edwards, Elizabeth. “‘Photographic Types’: The Pursuit of Method.” Visual Anthropology 3 no. 2/3 (1990), pp. 239-258.

Edwards, Elizabeth, editor. Anthropology and Photography, 1860-1920 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992).

Hight, Eleanor M. and Gary D. Sampson, editors. Colonialist Photography: Imag(in)ing Race and Place (New York: Routledge, 2002).

Lutz, Catherine A. and Jane L. Collins. Reading National Geographic (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).

Morris, Rosalind C. Photographies East: The Camera and Its Histories in East and Southeast Asia. (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2009).

Pinney, Christopher. “Photos of the Gods”: The Printed Image and Political Struggle in India (London: Reaktion Books, 2004).

Ryan, James R. Picturing Empire: Photography and the Visualization of the British Empire (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).

Stephen, Ann, editor. Pirating the Pacific: Images of Trade, Travel and Tourism. (Haymarket, NSW: Powerhouse Publishing, 1993).


Photography in the Philippines

Brody, David. Visualizing American Empire: Orientalism and Imperialism in the Philippines (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).

De la Cruz, Enrique B. and Pearlie Rose Baluyut, editors. Confrontations, Crossings, and Convergence: Photographs of the Philippines and the United States, 1898-1998 (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1998).

Folkmar, Daniel. Album of Philippine Types: Found in Bilibid Prison in 1903: Christians and Moros (Including a Few Non-Christians) (Manila: Bureau of Public Printing, 1904).

Rafael, Vicente L. “White Love: Surveillance and Nationalist Resistance in the U.S. Colonization of the Philippines.” In Cultures of United States Imperialism, Amy Kaplan and Donald E. Pease, editors (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1993), pp. 185-218.

Roces, Marian Pastor. “Old Photographs, Recuerdos Tristes.” Filipinas Journal 5 (1983), pp. 113-124.

Vergara, Benito M. Displaying Filipinos: Photography and Colonialism in Early 20th Century Philippines (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1995).


Dean Worcester

Hutterer, Karl L. “Dean C. Worcester and Philippine Anthropology.” Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 6 no. 3 (1978), pp. 125-156.

Mojares, Resil. “Worcester in Cebu: Filipino Response to American Business, 1915-1924.” Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 13 no. 1 (March 1985), p.1-13.

Rice, Mark. “His Name Was Don Francisco Muro: Reconstructing an Image of American Imperialism.” American Quarterly 62 (March 2010), pp. 49-76.

Sinopoli, Carla M. and Lars Fogelin, editors and compilers. Imperial Imaginings: The Dean C. Worcester Photograph Collection of the Philippines, 1890-1913 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, 1998).

Stanley, Peter W. “‘The Voice of Worcester Is the Voice of God’: How One American Found Fulfillment in the Philippines.” In Reappraising an Empire: New Perspectives on Philippine-American History, edited by Peter W. Stanley (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984), pp. 117-141.

Sullivan, Rodney J. Exemplar of Americanism: The Philippine Career of Dean C. Worcester (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, 1991).

Worcester, Dean C. “Notes on Some Primitive Philippine Tribes.” National Geographic 9 (June 1898), pp. 285-301.

Worcester, Dean C. The Philippine Islands and Their People (New York: Macmillan, 1898).

Worcester, Dean C. “Field Sports among the Wild Men of Northern Luzon.” National Geographic 22 (March 1911), pp. 215-267.

Worcester, Dean C. “Head-Hunters of Northern Luzon.” National Geographic 23 (September 1912), pp. 833-930.

Worcester, Dean C. “The Non-Christian Peoples of the Philippine Islands.” National Geographic 24 (November 1913), pp. 1157-1256.

Worcester, Dean C. The Philippines Past and Present (New York: Macmillan, 1914).


Online Resources:

University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology

McCoy, Alfred W. “Orientalism of the Philippine Photograph: America Discovers the Philippine Islands.”

Philippine Photography Archive. “The United States and Its Territories, 1870-1925: The Age of Imperialism”



CREDITS

“Photography & Power in the Colonial Philippines ll” was developed by Visualizing Cultures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and presented on MIT OpenCourseWare.

MIT Visualizing Cultures:

John W. Dower
Project Director
Emeritus Professor of History

Shigeru Miyagawa
Project Director
Professor of Linguistics
Kochi Prefecture-John Manjiro Professor of Japanese Language and Culture

Ellen Sebring
Creative Director

Scott Shunk
Program Director

Andrew Burstein
Media Designer

In collaboration with:
Christopher Capozzola
Author, essay
Associate Professor of History
MIT School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences


SUPPORT

Funding for this website was provided by:
The J. Paul Getty Foundation
The Henry Luce Foundation
The Andrew Mellon Foundation
The U.S. Department of Education

 
 
 


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