Quraysh: The tribe of the Prophet and inhabitants of Mecca who controlled the Ka`ba and the lucrative north-south trade between Yemen and the Byzantine empire.
`Ali: Cousin of the Prophet and second Muslim. He later became Muhammad's son-in-law and fourth successor (caliph).
Medina: Formerly Yathrib, the capital of the Prophet where the prototypical mosque, the Mosque of the Prophet, was founded in the year 1 Hegire (or Immigration)/ 622 A.D.
`Amru ibn al-`As: The Muslim general and statesman who conquered Egypt in 640-41.
Babylon: The Roman fortress which stood on the eastern bank of the Nile and guarded the head of the delta.
Fustat: The first capital of Islamic Egypt established in 642 by `Amru to the south, east, and north of Babylon and probably named after the Roman military term fossatum, or encampment.
Khitta: A parcel of land in a Misr given to a group from the various tribes that constituted the Islamic army to build their dwellings on.
Qibla: The direction of Mecca toward which Muslims are required to face when they pray.