|TEMPERATURE||REPEATS||CORTICAL CELLS||ION FLOW|
A formal lab report is the principle way scientific data are conveyed to the rest of the scientific community and preserved for future examination. Each scientific journal has its own idiosyncrasies regarding particulars of the format, but the most common elements of a scientific report, in order of presentation, are:
The requirements for each section are outlined below. This information is given in the order that you might actually write your report rather than the order in which the parts are presented in the final report. If you want more information, you can find parts of this text in an on-line collection of instructional materials used in the Purdue University Writing Lab. Other parts are inspired by Robert A. Day's book, How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper from Oryx Press, a copy of which is available in the teaching lab.
This is often the subject of many heated discussions and hurt feelings when only one report can be submitted to describe many people work. Since each of you will submit your own report, questions about who the authors will be, in what order, and what responsibilities each will have are moot. However you should list the name of your partner on your report since she contributed to the work.
Some readers begin by scanning the figures first. The figures, with the legends, should provide a self-explanatory overview of your data. Decide what the data show, then create figures which highlight the most important points of your paper.
Tables are used to present repetitive data that is numerical. Graphs or illustrations, collectively called figures, are used to present numerical trends, raw data (like a picture of a gel), or a model that explains your work.
When you prepare your figures and tables, keep in mind that it is significantly more expensive for journals to publish figures and tables than text, so try to present the data in a way that is worthy of such added expense. The table below is an example of an ineffective table.
|TEMPERATURE||REPEATS||CORTICAL CELLS||ION FLOW|
The information in Table 1 could be presented in one sentence, such as: "In ten experiments carried out at 24°C, ion flow was detected only in the presence of cortical cells." This is a clearer and more concise way to present the information. In addition, all tables and figures must have numbers, titles and legends.
Legends to the figures and tables explain the elements that appear in the illustration. Conclusions about the data are NOT included in the legends. As you write your first draft, state in a short simple sentence, what the point of the figure or table is. In later drafts, make sure each element of the figure or table is explained. Your figure legends should be written in the present tense since you are explaining elements that still exist at the time that you are writing the paper.
To write the results section, use the figures and tables as a guide. Start by outlining, in point form, what you found, going slowly through each part of the figures. Then take the points and group them into paragraphs, and finally order the points within each paragraph. Present the data as fully as possible, including stuff that at the moment does not quite make sense.
Verbs in the results section are usually in the past tense. Only established scientific knowledge is written about in the present tense, "the world is round,” for example. You cannot presume that your own data are part of the body of established scientific knowledge, and so when you describe your own results, use the past tense, “a band of 1.3 KB was seen," for example. There are, however, exceptions to this general rule. It is acceptable to say, "Table 3 shows the sizes of the DNA fragments in our preparation." It is also acceptable to say, "In a 1991 paper, Ebright and coworkers used PCR to mutagenize DNA."
This is like a cooking recipe. Include enough detail so that someone can repeat the experiment. It is important that the reader be able to interpret the results knowing the context in which they were obtained.
The Materials and Methods section should be written in the past tense, since your experiments are completed at the time you are writing your paper.
This is the section of the paper for you to show off your understanding of the data. You should summarize what you found. Explain how this relates to what others have found. Explain the implications.
Introduce what your question is. Explain why someone should find this interesting. Summarize what is currently known about the question. Introduce a little of what you found and how you found it. You should explain any ideas or techniques that are necessary for someone to understand your results section.
The abstract is a very short summary (usually around 150-250 words) of what the question is, what you found, and why it may be important.
The importance of abstracts is increasing as more scientists are using computers to keep up with the literature. Since computers can only search for words in a paper’s title and abstract, these may be the only parts that many people read. The abstract may also be the way a journal’s editor decides whether to send your paper out for peer review or reject it as uninteresting and not generally relevant. Consequently, a well written abstract is extraordinarily important.
The title should be short (about 10 words), interesting, and it should describe what you found.
Include only those references that pertain to the question at hand. Journals vary considerably in their preferred format for the reference list. For this class, you should list the references alphabetically by the first author’s last name. Include all the authors, the paper’s title, the name of the journal in which it was published, its year of publication, the volume number, and page numbers. Please carefully follow the punctuation and format requirements. A typical reference should look like
Pavletich N. P., C. O. Pabo. "Zinc Finger-DNA Recognition: Crystal Structure of a Zif268-DNA Complex at 2.1 A." Science 252 (1991):809-817.
In the body of your report, this article would be cited as follows: "The crystal structure of the Zif268-DNA complex has been solved (Pavletich 1991)."
If two or more articles can be cited for this finding, then they are listed alphabetically, separated by a comma.
|Title||To give content information to reader||Engaging||Appropriate||Not enough content information or too much|
|Abstract||To concisely summarize the experimental question, general methods, major findings, and implications of the experiments in relation to what is known or expected||
Key information is presented completely and in a clear, concise way
All information is correct
Organization is logical
Captures any reader’s interest
Sufficient information is presented in proper format
Would benefit from some reorganization
Understandable with some prior knowledge of experiment
Some key information is omitted or tangential information is included
Some information is misrepresented
Some implications are omitted
Incorrect format is used
|Introduction||To identify central experimental questions, and appropriate background information. To present a plausible hypothesis and a means of testing it||
Relevant background information is presented in balanced, engaging way
Your experimental goals and predictions are clear and seem a logical extension of existing knowledge
Writing is easy to read
All background information is correctly referenced
Relevant background information is presented but could benefit from reorganization
Your experiment is well described and a plausible hypothesis is given
With some effort, reader can connect your experiments to background information
Writing is understandable
Background information is correctly referenced
Background information is too general, too specific, missing and/or misrepresented
Experimental question is incorrectly or not identified
No plausible hypothesis is given
Writing style is not clear, correct or concise
References are not given or properly formatted
|Materials and methods||To describe procedures correctly, clearly, and succinctly. Included a correctly formatted citation of the lab manual||
Sufficient for another researcher to repeat your experiment
Lab manual cited
Procedures could be pieced together with some effort
Lab manual cited
Procedures incorrectly or unclearly described or omitted
Lab manual not cited
|Results||To present your data using text AND figures/tables||
Text tells story of your major findings in logical and engaging way
Figures and tables are formatted for maximum clarity and ease of interpretation
All figures and tables have numbers, titles and legends that are easy for the reader to follow
Text presents data but could benefit from reorganization or editing to make story easier for reader
Text includes interpretation of results that is better suited for discussion section
Figures and tables are formatted to be clear and interpretable
All figures and tables have numbers, titles and legends
Text omits key findings, inaccurately describes data, or includes irrelevant information
Text difficult to read due to style or mechanics of writing
Text difficult to read due to logic or organization
Figures and tables missing information, improperly formatted or poorly designed
Figures and tables have inadequate or missing titles or legends
|Discussion||To evaluate meaning and importance of major findings||
Appropriate conclusions drawn from findings
Connections made between experimental findings
Connections made between findings and background information
Future directions considered
Writing is compelling
Appropriate conclusions drawn from findings
Experimental limitations considered
Writing is clear
Conclusions omitted, incorrectly drawn or not related to hypothesis
Relationship between experimental findings and background information is missing or incorrectly drawn
Writing style and mechanics make argument difficult to follow
|References||To give credit work on which your own is based||
Complete list of reliable sources, including peer-reviewed journal article(s)
Properly formatted in body of report and in reference section
Adequate list or reliable sources
With minor exceptions, properly formatted in body of report and in reference section
List is incomplete or includes sources not cited in body of report
List includes inappropriate sources
List not properly formatted
References not properly cited in body of report
|WRITING STYLE AND MECHANICS||EVALUATION|
Appropriate for audience
Consistent passive or active voice
Too simple or too advanced
Irregular use of passive and active voice
Says what you mean
Scientific vocabulary used correctly
Ambiguous or incorrect
Scientific vocabulary misused
Sentences and paragraphs well structured
Punctuation correct or only minor errors
Grammar correct or minor errors
Sentences repetitive or awkward
Paragraphs not logical
Periods, commas, colons and semicolons misused
Significant number of run-on sentences, sentence fragments, misplaced modifiers, subject/verb disagreements
Significant number of spelling errors
Past tense for describing new findings
Present tense used for accepted scientific knowledge and figure legends
All sections included and properly formatted
Misleading verb tenses
Some sections missing
Abstract not single spaced
Figures missing legends
References not properly formatted