|LEC #||TOPICS||LECTURE QUESTIONS|
You are given a microscope slide that contains both living cells and empty membrane vesicles. When observed in a microscope, the two are indistinguishable. What is so special about the cell?
At what level does MIT focus its study of biology? Why?
What are the characteristics required for something to be considered alive?
What is the relationship between organisms and the environment in which they live?
What is a molecule? How many different kinds of molecules are present in each cell?
What do we mean when we say "structure of a molecule?" How does a molecule's structure enable its function?
What forces govern/enable molecular interations in a cell?
What are the fundamental types of biological macromolecules? What are the functions of each type of macromolecule in a cell?
We have learned that biological macromolecules are made from a small number of simple subunits. For example, proteins are made of only 20 different amino acids. Yet each cell needs to manufacture different protein molecules that serve wide range of functions. (a) Estimate the number of types of protein molecules each cell needs to make simultaneously. Is it on the order of 10s? 100s? 1000s? 10,000s? 100,000s? or millions? (b) These proteins assume a wide variety of shapes that allow them to perform their different functions. How is this variability achieved?
What functions do sidechains of amino acids serve in a protein?
What is the function of the membrane in a cell?
Why are certain elements of human diet designated as "essential?" Do yeast have "essential" diet elements?
What is the significance of a delta G of a given reaction?
Why is ATP a common intermediate in many reactions in a cell?
Where in the ATP molecule is the energy stored? Why does this particular way of storing energy allow ATP to serve as an "energy storage" molecule for the cell?
What other molecules do you imagine could perform this role?
Why are catalysts needed for energetically favorable reactions in a cell?
What do catalysts do to speed up reactions?
How do catalysts accomplish their functions?
In what way is the cell's use of ATP and NADH similar?
Why was it advantageous for a cell to develop glycolysis?
Why are the enzymes that catalyze the steps of glycolysis so similar in yeast and in humans?
Why couldn't organisms develop oxidative respiration before photosynthesis arose?
What was the effect of advent of noncyclic photophosphorylation on the environment on Earth?