Here are some sample questions from the final exam.

Neuroanatomy Exam

1) Which of the following statements regarding nervous system development is NOT true:

a. The neural tube is of ectodermal origin
b. The neural folds fuse in an anterior to posterior time gradient
c. The apices (tips) of the neural folds give rise to the neural crest
d. The cephalic end of the neural tube forms three primary vesicles

2) The fourth ventricle is the only ventricle with openings to the subarachnoid space. These are

a. _____________ located laterally
b. _____________ located medially

3) Which of the following statements regarding CSF is NOT true:

a. The CSF is secreted by the choroid plexus within all IV ventricles
b. The ionic content of CSF and blood plasma are the same
c. CSF is absorbed into the venous system through the arachnoid granulations
d. The composition of CSF is in equilibrium with brain extracellular fluids

4) The blood brain barrier results mainly from:

a. The special properties of brain capillaries
b. Lack of contact between brain capillaries and spaces filled with CSF
c. The impermeable nature of the cranial meninges
d. The fact that blood vessels do not enter the brain

5) The superior saggital sinus, the main site of venous drainage from the brain is:

a. A subdural space
b. An intradural space
c. A subarachnoid space
d. An epidural space

6) Which of the following arteries are NOT included in the circle of Willis:

a. The anterior communicating artery
b. The anterior cerebral artery
c. The middle cerebral artery
d. The posterior communicating artery

7) Which of the following areas is NOT supplied by the middle cerebral artery:

a. Frontal white matter and cortex
b. Anterior limb of the internal capsule
c. The putamen and outer globus pallidus
d. Parietal white matter and cortex 

8) State true or false for the following statements regarding the autonomic nervous system:

T    F 
_   _ a. Autonomic motor neurons are located outside the CNS
_   _ b. Preganglionic axons from the intermediolateral cell column innervate all the paravertebral ganglia
_   _ c. Postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic axons all release the transmitter acetylcholine
_   _ d. The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions both innervate all the same target organs

9) Which of the following statements regarding the spinal cord is NOT true:

a. The spinal cord ends at vertebrae L1-L2
b. The filum terminale is a supporting structure comprised of dura
c. The lumbar cistern is a continuation of the subarachnoid space
d. The cauda equina is formed by dorsal and ventral roots 

10) The schematic section of the spinal cord seen on the next page is from what level of the spinal cord?

a. Cervical
b. Thoracic
c. Lumbar
d. Sacral

11) In the schematic section of the spinal cord seen above A marks ________ tract. The fibres in this tract are/are not myelinated. They carry information about _____ and ______.

12) In the schematic section of the spinal cord seen above B marks the ______________. This tract carries information from _________ (what part of the body). The cell bodies of these fibres are located in the _________.

13) In the schematic section of the spinal cord seen above C marks the _____________. In this region fibres from neurons in __________ cross over and ascend to the brain in the _________ and _________ tracts which synapse in the _________ and _________ respectively.

14) In the schematic section of the spinal cord seen above D contains motor neurons that innervate what part of the body _________ (be specific).

15) In the schematic section of the spinal cord seen above, which of the tracts named below does NOT run in the region marked by E?

a. The corticospinal tract
b. The rubrospinal tract
c. The lateral reticulospinal tract
d. The vestibulospinal tract

16) What statment is NOT true about the region marked by F in the schematic section of the spinal cord on the previous page:

a. The fibres in this region project to the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle.
b. This tract carries sensory information that enters from spinal nerves below T1.
c. Cell bodies of fibres in this tract are located in the dorsal root ganglion.

17) Name one of the cranial nerves that enters the
medulla: __________ 
the pons: __________
the midbrain: __________
Name a cranial nerve that does not enter the brainstem: __________

18) Which of the following types of cranial nerve nuclei is situated lateral to the sulcus limitans

a. General somatic afferent
b. General somatic efferent
c. Special somatic efferent
d. Special visceral efferent

19) The spinal nucleus of V in the medulla is analogous to what region of the spinal cord?

a. The dorsal horn
b. Dorsal root ganglion
c. The dorsal columns
d. Clark's column

20) Which of the following statements concerning the brainstem reticular formation is NOT true?

a. Reticular neurons form a diffuse and widespread network of connections
b. The brainstem reticular formation is confined to the medulla and pons
c. The reticular formation regulates general levels of activity in the brain
d. The reticular formation has branches that ascend to the diencephalon and branches that descend to the spinal cord

21) In the brainstem there are several important clusters of amine containing cells. Connect the brainstem structure with the appropriate transmitter:

Raph'e nuclei         Dopamine
Locus coeruleus    Serotonin
Substantia nigra   Norepinephrin

22) Which of the following tracts traversing the brainstem contains first order neurons (before the first synapse)?

a. The medial lemniscus
b. The pyramidal tract
c. The anteriolateral system
d. The dorsal spinocerebellar

23) Name
one sensory nucleus of the thalamus ____________
one motor nucleus of the thalamus ____________
one limbic nucleus of the thalamus ____________
one association nucleus of the thalamus ____________

24) State true or false for the following statments regarding the thalamus:

T    F 
_   _ a. The thalamus is reciprocally connected to the cortex
_   _ b. The major projection of the non-specific thalamic nuclei is to other thalamic nuclei
_   _ c. The thalamus is a simple relay station to the cortex
_   _ d. The thalamus is bordered laterally by the internal capsule

25) Name the one sense that projects to the cortex before projecting to the thalamus: ____________

26) The cortical layer receiving the majority of thalamic afferents is:

a. Layer III
b. Layer IV
c. Layer V
d. Layer VI

27) Cortical areas that are not six layered are functionally associated with the ________ system. Name one such area __________

28) Electrical stimulation of which cortical area would elicit contractions of the contralateral hand muscles?

a. Precentral gyrus
b. Postcentral gyrus
c. Pyramids
d. Area 17
e. Areas 1-3

29) Decide whether a lesion in each of the following locations will lead to a left-sided or right-sided deficit
                                                                     left       right

a. Right dorsal root ganglia                         ____     ____
b. Right spinothalamic tract, thoracic level   ____     ____
c. Right fasiculus gracilis                              ____     ____
d. Right medial leminiscus                           ____     ____
e. Right clark's column                                ____     ____
f. Right cerebellar cortex                             ____     ____
g. Right pyramidal tract                               ____     ____
h. Right motor cortex                                  ____     ____
i. Right substantia nigra                              ____     ____

30) Which of the following structures does NOT receive input from the cerebellum:

a. The vestibular nuclei
b. The red nucleus
c. The superior olivary nucleus
d. VL nucleus of the thalamus

31) The midline cerebellar structures are mostly concerned with coordinating __________ muscles (what part of the body).

32) Which of the following connections is inhibitory:

a. Purkinje cell on deep cerebellar nuclei
b. Granule cell on Purkinje cells
c. Climbing fibre on Purkinje cell
d. Mossy fibres on Purkinje cells

33) The major input of the basal ganglia is from _________. The major output is to __________. (Be as specific as you can for both)

34) Which of the following diseases is NOT connected with the basal ganglia or functionally associated elements:

a. Parkinson's disease
b. Huntington's chorea
c. Myesthenia gravis
d. Hemiballismus

35) Which of the following statements concerning the retina is NOT true:

a. Light entering the retina has to travel through several cell layers to reach the photoreceptors.
b. The fovea is the region of highest visual resolution.
c. Retinal ganglion cell bodies are located in ganglia outside the eye.
d. The peripheral retina is the region of highest visual sensitivity.

36) On the following scematic outlines of visual fields, blacken out the areas of the visual field defects that would result from the described lesion.

a. Optic chiasm severed
b. Total destruction of the left lateral geniculate body
c. What other lesions would give a visual field defect identical to the one produced by lesion b. Give one example at least ______________

37) An embolus in the middle cerebral artery has caused damage to right auditory cortex. Which of the following statments is true:

a. Such damage will cause deafness
b. Such damage will cause deafness only in one ear
c. Such damage will cause problems with sound localization
d. Such damage will cause no problems

38) Name one station in the auditory pathway responsible for tonotopic sound identification ____________ (be specific).
 Name one station in the auditory pathway responsible for sound localization ____________ (be specific).

39) Which of the following structures is NOT associated with the limbic system:

a. The amygdala
b. Cingulate cortex
c. The subthalamic nucleus
d. The hypothalamus

40) Which of the following manifestations is NOT associated with the Kluver-Bucy syndrome (temporal lobe removal in monkeys):

a. Psychic blindness (inability to recognize objects)
b. Sham rage
c. Attention loss
d. Hypersexuality

41) Which of the following statements regarding the hypothalamus is NOT true:

a. The hypothalamus regulates visceral and endocrine functions
b. The mammilary bodies secrete oxytocin
c. The hypothalamus is involved in motivated behaviour
d. The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon

42) The parvocellular division of the hypothalamus synthesizes releasing hormones that are:

a. Released into the portal circulation
b. Released into the general circulation
c. Released directly onto cells in the anterior pituitary
d. Released directly onto cells in the posterior pituitary