Lecture Notes

1 Introduction and Coordinate Systems (PDF)  
2 Definitions of the Types of Latitude and Longitude; Mathematical Relationship Between These and Cartesian XYZ; Motion of the Rotation Axis, Which Affects Determination of Latitude and Longitude (PDF)

XYZ to Lat/Long/Height

Geodetic Datums

Moments of Inertia

International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service
3 Height Definitions, Methods for Determining Heights, Spirit Leveling and Trigonometric Leveling; Geoid Heights and Their Determination (PDF) NGS Geoid Site

Spherical Trigonometry

Derivations and Examples

(PDF) Spherical Trigonometry
5 Determination of Latitude and Longitude Using Astronomical Methods (PDF) Equation of Time
6 Almanacs in Paper and Electronic Form (PDF)

Rise, Set, and Twilight Definitions

Inconstant Moon

US Naval Observatory Astronomical Data Services

Web Version of MICA

Navigator Light

The Online Nautical Almanac
7 Dead Reckoning and Sextants (PDF)

The Road to the Magnetic North Pole

Field Lines for a Magnetic Dipole


Buy at Amazon Nathaniel Bowditch. The American Practical Navigator. Wallabycreek, 2011. ISBN: 9781921936746.

How to Read Vernier Calipers

8 Review of Linear Algebra Covering Vectors and Matrices, Solving Linear Equations, Vector Spaces, Eigenvalues and Vectors, Rotation Matrices (PDF) Square Matrix (M)
9 Sextant Measurements (PDF)  
10 Map Projections of Different Types and The Mathematics Behind Some Projections (PDF)


Map Projection Overview

Round Earth, Flat Maps

Map Projection
11 Statistics and Propagation of Variance-covariance Matrices (PDF)  
12 Estimation of Over-determined, Nearly Linear Systems Including Least and Weighted Least Squares (PDF)  
13 Examined HW 02 Solution and the Non-Linear Model That Can be Used to Represent the Measurements Taken (PDF)  
14 Finish Estimation With Sequential Estimation and Error Ellipses; Examine Correlations Between Random Time Series (PDF) The time series and correlation values plotted in this lecture were generated with cross.f (F)

Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)

Conventional Instruments and Theory of Their Operation

16 GPS Pseudo-range Measurements and Basic Principles of GPS (PDF)

We use the following Matlab files in this lecture:

GPSSim.m (M)

xcor.m (M)

17 GPS Signal Tracking, Orbit Geometry, Specific Signal Structure, Phase Measurements and Data (PDF)  
18 GPS Pseudo Range and Phase measurements, basic processing methods, Dilution of Precision Measures (PDF)  
19 Atmosphere Delay Effects (PDF)

The Height of the Tropopause

Sky Plots of Phase Residuals by Site has comparisons of NCEP and GPS estimates of atmospheric delays under the Atmosphere link.

20 Ionosphere and Dispersive GPS Delay Correction (PDF)  
21 Satellite Orbit Representation and Sources of Information about Orbits (PDF)

GPS Interface Control Document (PDF)#

RINEX: The Receiver Independent Exchange Format

IGS Products


Basics of Hand Held GPS Receivers

Class Outside Using GPS

23 Applications of GPS (PDF)

GPS Applications Exchange

GPS World

GAMIT/GLOBK Matlab Tools

Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN)