|1||Introduction and Objectives - what we want to understand better and why it matters||Syllabus Review - Assignment etc. Timing
Vision(s) of Architecture Theory
Instructors Background and Biases Relative to System Architecture etc.
|ESD Symposium Committee. "ESD Terms and Definitions (Version 17)." March 29, 2002. (PDF)
ESD Architecture Committee, D. L. Whitney - chair. "The Influence of Architecture in Engineering Systems." MIT Engineering Systems Monograph, March 31, 2004. (PDF)
Oltvai, Z. N., and A. Barabasi. "Life's Complexity Pyramid." Science 298 (October 25, 2002): 763-764.
A brief view of biology at several levels of aggregation.
Strogatz, S. H. "Exploring complex networks." Nature 410 (March 8, 2001): 268-276. (PDF)
A survey of important static and dynamic networks in several fields.
|2||Basic foundations for course emphasizing ways of thinking and biases||System Typologies and Systems of Interest in the Course
Terms and Definitions - Emphasis on Architecture, Complexity, Function, Performance, Uilities, Models, Constraints
Expansion on Key Concepts Beyond Definitions
|Simon, H. A. "The Architecture of Complexity: Hierarchic Systems." Chapter 8 In The Architecture of Complexity. 3rd ed. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1996. ISBN: 0262691914.|
|3||Have students begin to uncover their own biases and assumptions important in systems architecture||Student Presentations and Discussion
Brief Discussion of SDM Architecture Course
Brief Discussion of Assignment 2
|4||Introduction to Graphs, Networks, Hierarchies and DSM's||Models and Model Improvement
Graph Theory Introduction
Network "Science" History Including DSM's
Relationship of Architecture/Structure and Metrics (Importance of Data)
|[Watts] Chapters 1-4
Hayes, Brian. "Graph Theory in Practice: Part I." American Scientist 88, no. 1 (2000): 9-13.
----. "Graph Theory in Practice: Part II." American Scientist 88, no. 2 (2000): 104-118. Background
Committee on Network Science for Future Army Applications, National Research Council. Network Science. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006. ISBN: 0309653886.
Leading researchers assess the importance of "network science."
|5||Discussion and identification of focus systems whose architectures we will study all semester
|Student Presentations on Systems for Deeper Study (Data Sources and Objectives)
Project Discussion and Choice Process
Choices/Assignments Finished on Weekend After Class
|6||Network Observational Methods and Quantitative Metrics I: Simple Concepts||Network Analysis Terminology
Social Networks Concepts: Centrality, Clustering, Prestige and Acquaintance
Degree Distribution, Assessment and Meaning of Power Laws
|Newman, M. E. J. "Power laws, Pareto distributions and Zipf's law." Contemporary Physics 46 (2005): 323-351.|
|7||Constraints I||Deeper Discussion of Concept of Constraints
Power and Information as Clear Example of Constraints on System Structure
Implications to Structural Characteristics/Metrics
Effects on Modularity
|Whitney, D. L. "Physical Limits to Modularity." (PDF)
Skilling, H. H. "Impedence Matching." In Electrical Engineering Circuits. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1967, pp. 128-9. ISBN: 0471794007.
|8||Canonical structures and their organizational implications||Linking Human and Technical Systems at the Structural Level
Cooperation and Competition
Teams/Families/Clans and the Emergence of Hierarchy
Hierarchy: Layers, Trees, Mixtures and Hybrids-routers and Interpreters
Cultural Links, Tradeoffs
|9||Complexity and Flexibility||Complexity and Flexibility for Canonical Structures
Abstractions in Algebra
|[Watts] Chapter 9|
|10||Network Observational Methods||Degree Correlation-introduction
Community Structure Approaches
|Milo, R., et al. " Network Motifs: Simple Building Blocks of Complex Networks." Science 298 (25 October 2002): 824-827.
Newman, M. E. J. "Detecting community structure in networks." Eur Phys J B 38 (2004): 321-330. (PDF)
----. "The structure and function of complex networks." SIAM Review 45 (2003): 167-256.
This paper contains references needed to complete Assignment 3.
|11||Network Observational Methods||Motifs
Hierarchy of Function
Coarse-graining and Technical Systems
|Itzkovitz, S., et al. "Coarse-Graining and Self-Dissimilarity of Complex Networks." Physical Review E71 016127 (January 21, 2005) (PDF)|
|12||Network Models||Typology of Network Models - Predicting Structure/Metrics or Predicting "Properties" from Structure/Metrics and Level of Network Simplicity
Random Networks, Small-world and Preferentially Attached Networks
Cascades, Failures and Epidemics as an Example
|[Watts] Chapters 6-8
Watts, D. J. "A simple model of global cascades on random networks." PNAS 99, no. 9 (April 30, 2002): 5766-5771.
Meyers, L. A., M. E. J. Newman, M. Martin and S. Schrag. "Applying network theory to epidemics: control measures for Mycoplasma pneumoniae outbreaks." Emerg Infect Dis (2003 February).
|13||Student Presentations on Project Status||Short Presentation by each Student Team and Discussion|
|14||Affiliation Networks, Navigation and Search on Networks||Milgram Experiments
Early "Explanations" by Small World (and Random Network Models
Kleinberg I and II, Watts, Dodds and Newman
Search on the www
|[Watts] Chapter 5
Watts, D. J., P. S. Dodds, and M. E. J. Newman. "Identity and Search in Social Networks." Science 296 (May 17, 2002): 1302-1305.
This paper (and Kleinberg 2001) introduced the idea of hierarchies in social identity and use it to model milgram's experiment relatively successfully.
Kleinberg, J. M. "Navigation in a small world." Nature 406 (August 24, 2000): 845. (PDF)
This paper was the first to note (and model) the diffcult part of Milgram's experiment.
----. "Small-World Phenomena and the Dynamics of Information." 2001. (PDF)
Kleinberg's second paper introducing hierarchy into social identity and thus succesfully modeling Milgram's experiment.
|15||Constraints II and Scaling and Allometry||Revisit System Typology
Explore Possible Implications on Structural Metrics
Scaling Laws in Different Contexts
|West, G. B., J. H. Brown, and B. J. Enquist. "The 4th Dimension of Life: Fractal Geometry and Allometric Scaling of Organisms." Science 284 (June 4, 1999): 1677-1679.
A fractal derivation of 3/4 power law.
Banavar, J. R., A. Maritan, and A. Rinaldo. "Size and form in efficient transportation networks." Nature 399 (May 13, 1999): 130-132.
An efficient transport derivation of the ¾ power law.
|16||Enterprise Architectures||Germany, Japan and US Cultural Influences on Organizational Structure
Sloan, Oichi and Piore and Sable
Sloan, A. P. "Co-ordination by Committee," "The Management: How It Works," and "Change and Progress." Chapters 7, 23, and 24 in My Years with General Motors. Darby, PA: DIANE Publishing, 2004. ISBN: 0756783666.
|17||Modeling Enterprise architectures Constraints - Social, Physical, Political, Time-based - and their effect on structure and behavior||Research on Organizational Theory
Simple, Quantitative Models and their use in Model/Theory Improvement
Sah and Stiglitz
Dodds, Watts and Sable
|Dodds, P. S., D. J. Watts, and C. F. Sabel. "Information exchange and the robustness of organizational networks." PNAS 100, no. 21 (Oct. 14, 2003): 12516-12521.
This paper uses network analysis techniques to model communication in a variety of organizational structures.
|18||Technical and some sociological networks compared in greater depth||Continuation of Constraints and Scaling in Engineering Systems
Degree Correlation Patterns in Different Technical Systems
|Gastner, M. T., and M. E. J. Newman. "Shape and efficiency in spatial distribution networks." J Stat Mech (2006): P01015.|
|19||Student reports on their focus architectures||Quantitative Analyses and Model Building Status|
|20||Second generation models of technological systems||Internet Models Including Business and Technical Tradeoffs
Air Transport Modeling Including the Role of Nodes
|Guimera, R., et al. "The Worldwide Air Transportation Network." PNAS 102, no. 22 (2005): 7794-7799.
This paper is the latest (more are coming) concerning the air transport system by a group centered at Northwestern Univ.
Doyle, J. C., et al. "The 'Robust yet fragile' nature of the Internet." PNAS 102, no. 41 (2005): 14497-14502.
This paper is the best summary of the important work done by a group at Cal Tech that brings engineering considerations into the network models of the Internet.
|21||Systematics in other fields||Taxonomy in Early Biology
Taxonomy in Biology Today - Cladograms and the Cladists
Taxonomy in Economics - Econophysics and Dendrograms
Hierarchy Definition by Distance
Hierarchy by Betweenness
| Gould, S. J. "What, If Anything, Is a Zebra." Chapter 28 in Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes: Further Reflections in Natural History. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co., 1994. ISBN: 0393311031.
A book chapter dealing with the issues and the history of "systematic" in Biology by one of the late 20th century's great bioligist writers and thinkers.
Mategna and Stanley. "Taxonomy of a Stock Portfolio." Chapter 13 in An Introduction to Econophysics. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN: 0521620082.
|22||Standards and the practice of complex system architecture, design and standards||Engineering System Evolution and the Role of Standards
Standards in Different Systems
Standards as an Interdependent Set of Artifacts
|David, P. A., and S. Greenstein. "The Economics of Compatibility Standards: An Introduction to Recent Research." Econ Innov New Techn 1 (1990): 3-41.
A fairly thorough (if a little old) review of standards as seen by economists.
|23-24||Final Presentations||Long Team Presentations|
|25||Overall discussion of presentation and further elaboration of theory and architecture|
|26||Final day of class-course wrap-up and discussion of quality of emerging models and theoretical needs|