The critical role of technology-based, disruptive innovations to a business
The IBM near-death experience of the early 1990s
Strategy formulation - key external factors
Initial discussion of class project
Henderson, Rebecca, and Kim Clark. "Architectural Innovation: The Reconfiguration of Existing Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firms." Administrative Science Quarterly, The Johnson School at Cornell University, March 1990.
Strategy formulation - the internet and the Web as major disruptive forces
Coming up with the IBM internet strategy
The future of the internet
|Hamel, Gary. "Waking Up IBM." Harvard Business Review 78 (2000): 137.|
|4||Strategy formulation - key internal factors||
Christiansen, Clay. Meeting the Challenge of Disruptive Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Pub, 2000.
Operationalizing the Strategy - key internal factors
Market and application segmentation, internal measurements, management reviews
|Christiansen, Clay, and Michael Raynor. Innovator's Solution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2003, chapters 5 and 6. ISBN: 9781578518524.|
Operationalizing the Strategy - key external factors
Major role of market experimentation and end-user innovation
Von Hippel, Eric. Democratizing Innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005, chapters 1, 2, 3, 4; other chapters optional. ISBN: 9780262002745.
Thomke, Stefan. "Enlightened Experimentation." Harvard Business Review 79 (2001): 66.
The major role of marketing and communications in strategy formulation and execution
The IBM e-business marketing and communications strategy
Loomis, C. J. "Dinosaurs?" Fortune 127 (1993): 36-42.
Caldwell, Bruce Caldwell, and John Foley. "IBM Means E-business." Information Week, February 9, 1998.
Sager, Ira. "Internet Business Machines." Business Week e.biz, December 13, 1999.
|10||Organization and cultural issues - building and managing a virtual organization||
Henderson, Rebecca. "Managing Innovation in the Information Age." Harvard Business Review, January-February 1994.
Nadler, D. A., and M. L. Tushman. "Beyond that Charismatic Leader: Leadership and Organizational Change." California Management Review, (Winter 1990): 77-97.
Leonard-Barton, Dororthy. Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities. Boston, MA: Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1991.
|11||Organization and cultural issues - key role of leadership and management|