This section features the required readings for each weekly class session. For supplementary reading, a comprehensive list of recommended readings is also provided below.
This course is taught by five instructors, each of which is responsible for certain lecture sessions, as shown in the table below. Please consult the following key for instructors' names:
EF = Edward Flemming
DG = David Gow
SS = Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel
DS = Donca Steriade
KS = Ken Stevens
|SES # ||LECTURERS ||TOPICS ||SUBTOPICS ||READINGS |
|1 ||KS ||Course overview || |
a. Distinctive features; phonological evidence and evidence from production, acoustics and perception; articulator-free features and articular-bound features
b. Basics of acoustics of speech production: acoustic sources from airflow, filtering of sources by the vocal tract
c. Some basic anatomy: breathing, lungs, larynx, oral tract, nasal cavities
d. Basics of hearing; hearing for speech
e. Air flow and its control in speech production
f. Introduction to quantal theory, enhancement
Stevens, K. N. Acoustic Phonetics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999, chapters 1-2. ISBN: 9780262194044.
Stevens, Kenneth N., and Samuel Jay Keyser. "Quantal Theory, Enhancement and Overlap." Manuscript, Paris, France, December 5, 2006. (PDF)
Clements, George, and Rachid Ridouane. "Quantal Phonetics and Distinctive Features: A Reviews." Proceedings of ISCA Tutorial and Research Workshop on Experimental Linguistics. Athens, Greece, August 28-30, 2006.
|2-3 ||KS ||Features for vowels and sonorant consonants || |
a. Vowel systems, relation between acoustics and articulation; vowel nasalization, glottal source for vowels
b. Waveform displays, spectrum displays, spectrograms
c. Sonorant consonants; glides, liquids, nasals
Stevens, K. N. Acoustic Phonetics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999, chapters 3-6. ISBN: 9780262194044.
Stevens, Kenneth N., and Samuel Jay Keyser. "Quantal Theory, Enhancement and Overlap." Manuscript. Paris, France, December 5, 2006. (PDF)
———. "Enhancement and Overlap in the Speech Chain." Language 82, no. 1 (2006): 33-63.
|4 ||DS ||Why features ||a. Learning phonology with distinctive features || |
Albright, Adam, and Bruce Hayes. "Rules vs. Analogy in English Past Tenses: A Computational/Experimental Study." Cognition 90 (2003): 119-161.
Nielsen, Kuniko Y. "Specificity and Generalizability of Spontaneous Phonetic Imitation." Interspeech 2006 - Ninth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP). Pittsburgh, PA, September 17-21, 2006.
Peperkamp, Sharon, Rozenn Le Calvez, Jean-Pierre Nadal, and Emmanuel Dupoux. "The Acquisition of Allophonic Rules: Statistical Learning with Linguistic Constraints." Cognition 101, no. 3 (2005): B31-B41.
|b. Inferring features ||Mielke, Jeff. "Ambivalence and Ambiguity in Laterals and Nasals." Phonology 22, no. 2 (2005): 169-203. |
|c. Natural classes ||Flemming, Edward. "Deriving Natural Classes in Phonology." Lingua 115 (2003): 287-309. |
|5 ||DS ||Feature values in lexical entries ||a. Experimental evidence for underspecification || |
Lahiri, A., and W. Marslen-Wilson. "The Mental Representation of Lexical Form: A Phonological Approach to the Recognition Lexicon." Cognition 38 (1991): 245-294.
|b. Evidence for underspecification in lexical access vs. phonological evidence || |
Steriade, Donca. "Underspecification and Markedness." In The Handbook of Phonological Theory. Edited by John A. Goldsmith. Cambridge, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 1996. ISBN: 9780631201267.
Nevins, Andrew. "Conditions on (Dis) Harmony." PhD. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, December 2004.
|6 ||DS ||Features vs. contrasts ||Phonological relevance of non-contrastive features: release, syllabicity, timing || |
Steriade, Donca. "Closure, Release, and Nasal Conditions." In Phonetics and Phonology 5: Nasals, Nasalization, and the Velum. Edited by Marie Huffman and Rena Krakow. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1993. ISBN: 9780123603807.
———. "Paradigm Uniformity and the Phonetics-Phonology Boundary." In Papers in Laboratory Phonology V: Acquisition and the Lexicon. Edited by Michael B. Broe and Janet B. Pierrehumbert. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780521643634.
Albright, Adam. "A Restricted Model of UR Discovery: Evidence from Lakhota." Unpublished manuscript, 2007.
|7 ||EF, DS ||Features vs. contrasts (cont.) ||a. Syllable structure || |
Mehler, J., J. Y. Dommergues, U. Frauenfelder, and J. Segui. "The Syllable's Role in Speech Segmentation." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 20 (1981): 298-305.
Content, A., C. Meunier, R. K. Kearns, and U. H. Frauenfelder. "Sequence Detection in Pseudowords in French: Where is the Syllable Effect?" Language and Cognitive Processes 16, nos. 5-6 (October 2001): 609-636.
|b. Contrast as an alternative theory of features || Flemming, Edward. "Contrast and Perceptual Distinctiveness." In Phonetically Based Phonology. Edited by Bruce Hayes, Robert Kirchner, and Donca Steriade. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN: 9780521825788. |
|8 ||EF ||Lexical neighborhood, frequency, predictability, effects on production and perception || || |
Pisoni, D. B., H. C. Nusbaum, P. A. Luce, and L. M. Slowiaczek. "Speech Perception, Word Recognition, and the Structure of the Lexicon." Speech Communication 4 (1985): 75-95.
Wright, R. "Factors of Lexical Competition in Vowel Articulation." In Papers in Laboratory Phonology VI. Edited by John Local, Richard Ogden, and Rosalind Temple. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN: 9780521824026.
Scarborough, Rebecca. "Lexical and Contextual Predictability: Confluent Effects on the Production of Vowels." Laboratory Phonology 10: Variation, Detail, & Representation, Tenth Conference on Laboratory Phonology, Paris, France, June 19-July 1, 2006.
|9 ||EF, DS ||Theories of speech perception ||a. Objects of speech perception || |
Remez, Robert. "A Guide to Research on the Perception of Speech." In Handbook of Psycholinguistics. Edited by Morton Ann Gemsbacher. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1994. ISBN: 9780122808906.
Fowler, C. A. "Segmentation of Coarticulated Speech in Perception." Perception and Psychophysics 36, no. 4 (October 1984): 359-368.
|b. Models of speech perception - relation to lexical access, the role of 'intermediate' representations, Nearey's typology of intermediate representations. || |
Perrier, Pascal. "Control and Representations in Speech Production." ZAS Papers in Linguistics 40 (2005): 109-132.
Neary, T. M. "Speech Perception as Pattern Recognition." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101 (1997): 3241-3254
|10 ||DG ||Context effects || || |
Repp, B. H. "Bidirectional Contrast Effects in the Perception of VC-CV Sequences." Perception and Psychophysics 33 (1983): 147-155.
Lotto, A. J., K. R. Kluender, and L. L. Holt. "Perceptual Compensation for Coarticulation by Japanese Quail." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 102 (1997): 1134-1140.
Magnuson, J. S., B. McMurray, M. K. Tanenhaus, and R. N. Aslin. "Lexical Effects on Compensation for Coarticulation: The Ghost of Christmas Past." Cognitive Science 27 (2003): 285-298.
Carney, Arlene E., Gregory P. Widin, and Neal F. Viemeister. "Noncategorical Perception of Stop Consonants Differing in VOT." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 62, no. 4 (1977): 961-970.
Miller, J. L. "Mapping from Acoustic Signal to Phonetic Category: Internal Structure, Context Effects and Speeded Categorization." Language and Cognitive Processes 16, nos. 5-6 (October-December 2001): 683-690.
Norris, D., J. M. McQueen, and A. Cutler. "Merging Information in Speech Recognition: Feedback is Never Necessary." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23, no. 3 (2000): 299-370.
|11 ||DG ||Normalization || || |
Miller, J. L., T. B. O'Rourke, and L. E. Volaitis. "Internal Structure of Phonetic Categories: Effects of Speaking Rate." Phonetica 54 (1997): 121-137.
Holt, L., and T. Wade. "Non-linguistic Sentence-length Precursors Affect Speech Perception: Implications for Speaker and Rate Normalization." Proceedings of from Sound to Sense, 2004.
Grossberg, S., I. Boardman, and M. A. Cohen. "Neural Dynamics of Variable-rate Speech Categorization." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 23 (1997): 481-503.
Connine, Cyntha M. "It's Not What You Hear But How Often You Hear It: On the Neglected Role of Phonological Variant Frequency in Auditory Word Recognition." Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 11, no. 6 (December 2004): 1084-1089.
McLennan, Conor T., Paul A. Luce, and Jan Charles-Luce. "Representation of Lexical Form." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 29, no. 4 (2003): 539-553.
Goldinger, Stephen D., and Tamiko Azuma. "Puzzle-solving Science: The Quixotic Quest for Units in Speech Perception." Journal of Phonetics 31 (2003): 305-320.
|12 ||DG ||Feature-cue integration and assimilation || || |
Gow, D. W. "Feature Parsing: Feature Cue Mapping in Spoken Word Recognition." Perception and Psychophysics 65 (2003): 575-590.
Gow, D. W., and C. Zoll. "The Role of Feature Parsing in Speech Processing and Phonology." MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 42 (2002): 55-68.
|13-14 || ||Student presentations || ||(no readings) |
The following readings-grouped by topic-are highly recommended and apply directly to the content covered in this course:
Kenstowicz, Michael, and Charles Kisseberth. "Phonological Sketches." Chapter 4 in Generative Phonology: Description and Theory. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1986. ISBN: 9780124051614.
Distinctive Features and Acoustic Properties
Stevens, Kenneth N. "Toward a Model for Lexical Access Based on Acoustic Landmarks and Distinctive Features." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 111, no. 4 (April 2002): 1872-1891.
———. "Invariance and Variability in Speech: Interpreting Acoustic Evidence." Proceedings from From Sound to Sense: 50+ Years of Discoveries in Speech Communication, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, June 11-13, 2004, pp. B77-B85.
———. "Acoustic and Perceptual Evidence for Universal Phonological Features." Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Barcelona, Spain, 2003, pp. 33-38.
———. "Articulatory-Acoustic-Auditory Relationships." Chapter 15 in The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences. Edited by William J. Hardcastle and John Laver. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1997/1999. ISBN: 9780631214786.
———. "On the Quantal Nature of Speech." Journal of Phonetics 17, no. 1 (1989): 3-45.
———. "The Properties of the Vocal-Tract Walls Help to Shape Several Phonetic Distinctions in Language." Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague 31 (2001): 285-297.
Halle, M., and Kenneth N. Stevens. "Knowledge of Language and The Sounds of Speech." In Music, Language, Speech and Brain. Edited by J. Sundberg, L. Nord, and R. Carlson. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan Press, 1991, pp. 1-19. ISBN: 9780333564295.
Kingston, J., and R. L. Diehl. "Phonetic Knowledge." Language 70 (1994): 419-454.
Liljencrants, J., and B. Lindblom. "Numerical Simulation of Vowel Quality Systems: The Role of Perceptual Contrast." Language 48 (1972): 839-862.
Distinctive Features in Phonology
McCawley, James. "The Role of a Phonological Feature System in a Theory of Language." In Phonological Theory: Evolution and Current Practice. Edited by Valerie Becker Makkai. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1967, pp. 522-528.
Flemming, Edward. "The Dispersion Theory of Contrast." Chapter 2 in Auditory Representations in Phonology. New York, NY: Routledge, 2002. ISBN: 9780815340416.
Clements, G. N., and Elizabeth V. Hume. "The Internal Organization of Speech Sounds." In The Handbook of Phonological Theory. Edited by John A. Goldsmith. Cambridge, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 1996, pp. 245-306. ISBN: 9780631201267.
Pulleyblank, Douglas. "Covert Feature Effects." In WCCFL 22: Proceedings of the 22nd West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics. Edited by Gina Garding and Mimu Tsujimura. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press, 2003. pp. 398-422.
Hinskens, Frans, and Jeroen van de Weijer. "Patterns of Segmental Modification in Consonant Inventories: A Cross-Linguistic Study." Linguistics 42, no. 6 (November 2003): 1041-1084.
Flemming, Edward. "Auditory Features in Phonology." Chapter 1 in Auditory Representations in Phonology. New York, NY: Routledge, 2002. ISBN: 9780815340416.
Clemens, G. N. "Representational Economy in Constraint-based Phonology." In Distinctive Feature Theory. Edited by T. Alan Hall. New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 2001. ISBN: 9783110170337.
Mielke, Jeff. The Emergence of Distinctive Features. Ohio State University dissertation, 2004. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780199233373.
Peperkamp, Sharon, Katrin Skoruppa, and emmanual Dupoux. "The Role of Phonetic Naturalness in Phonological Rule Acquisition." Proceedings of the 30th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Vol. 1. Edited by David Bamman, Tatiana Magnitskaia, and Colleen Zaller. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press, 2006, pp. 464-475. ISBN: 9781574730647.
Saffran, Jenny R., and Erik D. Thiessen. "Pattern Induction by Infant Language Learners." Developmental Psychology 39, no. 3 (2003): 484-494.
Clements, G. N. "Feature Economy in Sound Systems." Phonology 20 (2003): 287-333.
Nowak, Pawel, Anne Pycha, Eurie Shin, and Ryan Shosted. "Phonological Rule-learning and Its Implications for a Theory of Vowel Harmony." WCCFL 22: Proceedings of the 22nd West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, San Diego, CA, March 21-23, 2003.
Finley, and Badecker. "The Cognitive Basis for Restrictions on Vowel Harmony." Old World Conference in Phonology 4, January 18-21, 2007 and LSA Annual Meeting, 2007. (PDF)
Albright, Adam. "OO-correspondence to Phonetically Predictable Properties: Evidence from Episodic - ́ee." 2006.
Flemming, Edward. "The Relationship Between Coronal Place and Vowel Backness." Phonology 20 (2003).
McCrawley, James D. "The Role of a Phonological Feature System in a Theory of Language." Language 6 (1967).
Lexical Neighborhoods and Frequency
Munson, Benjamin, and Nancy Pearl Solomon. "The Effect of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Vowel Articulation." Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research 47 (October 2004): 1048-1058.
Luce, Paul A., David B. Pisoni, and Steven D. Goldinger. "Similarity Neighborhoods of Spoken Words." Cognitive Models of Speech Processing: Psycholinguistic and Computational Perspectives. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. ISBN: 9780262510844.
Boudelaa, Sami, and William D. Marslen-Wilson. "Non-concatenative Morphemes in Language Processing: Evidence from Modern Standard Arabic." Spoken Word Access Processes (SWAP), Nijmegen, The Netherlands, May 29-31, 2000.
Johnson, Keith. "Speaker Normalization in Speech Perception." In The Handbook of Speech Perception. Edited by David Pisoni and Robert Remez. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005, pp. 363-389. ISBN: 9780631229278.
Fitzpatrick, J., and L. R. Wheeldon. "Phonology and Phonetics in Psycholinguistic Models of Speech Perception." In Phonological Knowledge: Conceptual and Empirical Knowledge. Edited by Noel Burton-Roberts, Philip Carr, and Gerard Dougherty. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN: 9780198241270.
Pierrehumbert, Janet. "Exemplar Dynamics: Word Frequency, Lenition, and Contrast." In Frequency and the Emergence of Linguistic Structure. Edited by Joan L. Bybee and Paul Hopper. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2001. ISBN: 9781588110282.
Segui, Juan, and Ludovic Ferrand. "The Role of the Syllable in Speech Perception and Production." In Phonetics, Phonology, and Cognition. Edited by Jaques Durand and Bernard Laks. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780198299844.
Dumay, Nicolas, Uli H. Frauenfelder, and Alain Content. "The Role of the Syllable in Lexical Segmentation in French: Word-Spotting Data." Brain and Language 81 (2002): 144-161.
Pallier, Christophe. "Phoenemes and Syllables in Speech Perception: Size of Attentional Focus in French." 1997. (PDF)
Meunier, Christine, Alain Content, Uli H. Frauenfelder, and Ruth Kearns. "The Locus of the Syllable Effect: Prelexical or Lexical?" 5th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Rhodes, Greece, September 22-25, 1997.
Access to Lexical Entries
Gow, David, and Cheryl Zoll. "The Role of Feature Parsing in Speech Processing and Phonology." MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 42 (2002): 55-68.
McMurray, Bob, Michael K. Tannenhaus, and Richard N. Aslin. "Gradient Effects of Within-category Phonetic Variation on Lexical Access" Cognition 86 (2000): B33-B42.
Blumstein, Sheila E. "Phonetic Category Structure and its Influence on Lexical Processing." In Proceedings of the 2003 Texas Linguistics Society Conference. Edited by Augustine Agwuele, Willis Warren, and Sang-Hoon Park. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project, 2003, pp 17-25. (PDF)
Dahan, D., J. S. Magnuson, M. K. Tanenhaus, and E. M. Hogan. "Tracking the Time Course of Subcategorical Mismatches: Evidence for Lexical Competition." Language and Cognitive Processes 16, no. 5-6 (2001): 507-534.
Norris, D., J. M. McQueen, and A. Cutler. "Merging Information in Speech Recognition: Feedback is Never Necessary." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23, no. 3 (June 2000): 299-370.
McClelland, J. L., and J. L. Elman. "The TRACE Model of Speech Perception." Cognitive Psychology 18 (1986): 1-86.
Massaro, Dominic W. "Psychological Aspects of Speech Perception: Implications for Research and Theory." In Handbook of Psycholinguistics. Edited by Morton Ann Gemsbacher. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1994. ISBN: 9780122808906.
Repp, Bruno H., and Alvin M. Liberman. "Phonetic Category Boundaries are Flexible." In Categorical Perception: The Groundwork of Cognition. Edited by S. Harnad. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1990. ISBN: 9780521385947.
Gow, D. W., and P. C. Gordon. "Lexical and Prelexical Influences on Word Segmentation: Evidence from Priming." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 21 (1995): 344-359.
Theories of Speech Perception
Liberman, Alvin M., and Ignatius G. Mattingly. "The Motor Theory of Speech Perception Revised." Cognition 21 (1985): 1-36.
Savariaux, C. P. Perrier, and Jean-Pierre Orliaguet. "Compensation Strategies for the Perturbation of the Rounded Vowel [u] Using Lip-tue: A Study of the Control Space in Speech Production." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (1995): 2428.
Savariaux, C., P. Perrier, J. P. Orliaguet, and J. L. Schwartz. "Compensation Strategies for the Perturbation of the Rounded Vowel." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 106 (1999): 381-393.
Tremblay, S., D. M. Shiller, and D. J. Ostry. "Somatosensory Basis of Speech Production." Nature 423 (2003): 866-869.
Kraljic, T., and A. Samuel. "Generalization in Perceptual Learning for Speech." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 13, no. 2 (2006).
Benkí, J. R. "Place of Articulation and First Formant Transition Pattern both Affect Perception of Voicing in English." Journal of Phonetics 29 (2001): 1-22.
Smits, Roel. "Hierarchical Categorization of Coarticulated Phonemes: A Theoretical Analysis." Perception and Psychophysics 63 (2001): 1109-1139.
———. "Evidence for Hierarchical Categorization of Coarticulated Phonemes." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 27, no. 5 (2001): 1145-1162.