Readings

Along with the book recommendations there are some reading assignments for the course.

Book Recommendations

Text: There was no textbook. The course was based on several books and original publications.

The book most relevant to the course was:

  • Amazon logo Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude, Jaques Dupont-Roc, and Gilbert Grynberg. Atom-Photon-Interactions: Basic Processes and Applications. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1998. ISBN: 9780471293361.

Some additional material used were:

  • Amazon logo Loudon, Rodney. The Quantum Theory of Light. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780198501763.
  • Amazon logo Weissbluth, Mitchel. Photon-Atom Interactions. Boston, MA: Academic Press, 1989. ISBN: 9780127436609.
  • Dalibard, J., J. M. Raimond, and J. Zinn-Justin, eds. Proceeding of the Summer School in Les Houches 1990: Fundamental Systems in Quantum Optics. Les Houches, Session LIII, 1990. Elsevier, 1992.
  • Arimondo, E., W. D. Phillips, and F. Strumia, eds. Proceeding of the summer school in Varenna 1991: Laser Manipulation of Atoms and Ions, Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi." Course CXVIII. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1992.

Further books used to prepare the courses 8.421 and 8.422:

  • Amazon logo Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude. Atoms in Electromagnetic Fields. Singapore: World Scientific, 2005. (Selected Original Papers of C. -T.) ISBN: 9789812389428.
    Recommended.
  • Amazon logo Allen, L., and J. H. Eberly. Optical Resonance and Two-level Atoms. New York, NY: Dover, 1987. ISBN: 9780486655338.
    Covers some more special topics very well: Bloch Equations, Pulse Propagation, Echoes, Superradiance.
  • Amazon logo Demtröder, W. Laser Spectroscopy. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2002. ISBN: 9783540652250.
    Almost encyclopedic book on lasers, spectroscopic instruments and techniques, and all relevant methods of spectroscopy - lots of references, very useful.
  • Amazon logo Svelto, O. Principle of Lasers. New York, NY: Plenum, 2007. ISBN: 9780306457487.
    Mainly on lasers (Basic Principles, Resonators, Types of Lasers), but nice short discussions of coherence and other concepts.
  • Amazon logo Svanberg, S. Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2004. ISBN: 9783540203827.
    A lot of similar topics as Demtröder's book, but less detailed. A longer chapter on applications of laser spectroscopy.
  • Amazon logo Corney, A. Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon, 1987. ISBN: 9780198511489.
    This book is on atoms, discusses hyperfine structure, selection rules and other effects in detail, and gives many examples of techniques and experiments. Gives a very good impression of the state of experimental atomic physics in the '70s.
  • Amazon logo Thorne, A. P. Spectrophysics. London, U.K.: Chapman, 1988. ISBN: 9780412274701.
    Nice book on spectroscopy, with some emphasis on classical methods and plasma spectroscopy. Long chapter on line widths and shapes.
  • Amazon logo Scully, M. O., and M. S. Zubairy. Quantum Optics. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521434584.
    The theory of quantum optics! Detailed treatment of coherence and electromagnetically induced transparency, laser theory.
  • Amazon logo Suter, D. The Physics of Laser-atom Interactions. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521462396.
    Detailed discussion of three-level systems and coherent effects.

Reading Assignments

Lec # Topics Readings
1 1. Introduction 2. Classical Molasses and Beam Slowing
2.1. The Spontaneous Light Force
2.2. 1D Optical Molasses
2.3. The Doppler Cooling Limit
2.4. Beam Slowing

Phillips, W. D. "Laser Cooling and Trapping of Neutral Atoms." In Laser Manipulation of Atoms and Ions. Edited by E. Arimondo, W. D. Phillips, and F. Strumia. Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course CXVIII. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1992, pp. 289-304. (The second part on atom traps was covered later in the course). Alternatively see this (PDF - 4.9 MB)

Three-Dimensional Viscous Confinement and Cooling of Atoms by Resonance Radiation Pressure

One-page note on Chirped Slowing (PDF)

Phillips, W. D., J. V. Prodan, and H. J. Metcalf. "Laser Cooling and Electromagnetic Trapping of Neutral Atoms." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, no. 1761 (1985).

Lett, P. D., W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, C. E. Tanner, R. N. Watts, and C. I. Westbrook. "Optical Molasses." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, no. 2084 (1989).

Ertmer, W., R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu. "Laser Manipulation of Atomic Beam Velocities: Demonstration of Stopped Atoms and Velocity Reversal." Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, no. 996 (1985).

Ketterle, W., A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard. "Slowing and Cooling Atoms in Isotropic Laser Light." Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, no. 2483 (1992).

Barrett, T. E., S. W. Dapore-Schwartz, M. D. Ray, and G. P. Lafyatis. "Slowing Atoms with (Sigma-minus) Polarized Light." Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, no. 3483 (1991).

2 2.5. Energy vs. Momentum Picture
2.6. 3D Molasses and Higher Intensity
2.7. Momentum and Spatial Diffusion
 
3 3. The QED Hamiltonian

Viewgraphs used in class (PDF)

Weissbluth, Mitchel. Photon Atom Interactions. Boston, MA: Academic Press Inc., 1989. ISBN: 978-0127436609.
The discussion follows the appendix in Atom-Photon Interactions, pp. 621-643.

Amazon logo A 500-page derivation and discussion of the basic equations of QED can be found in: Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude, Jaques Dupont-Roc, and Gilbert Grynberg. Photons and Atoms - Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1997. ISBN: 9780471184331.

I would recommend consulting this book whenever you want to know more about the "exact" formulation of the theory. I am always amazed how easily you can open this book in the middle and still understand the explanations.

4 4. Properties of Light
4.1. The Quantized Radiation Field
4.1.1. Thermal States (Chaotic Light)
4.1.2. Coherent States; Q(Alpha) Representation
4.1.3. Fluctuations, Noise, and Second Order Coherence
4.1.4. Single Photon States and the Hanbury-Brown Twiss Experiment

Amazon logo Loudon, Rodney. "Chaotic Light." The Quantum Theory of Light. 3rd ed. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN: 9780198501763. Chapter 3 on chaotic light.

Amazon logo Weissbluth, Mitchel. Photon Atom Interactions. Boston, MA: Academic Press Inc., 1989. ISBN: 9780127436609. Chapter 4.4-4.8 on the radiation field up to squeezing.

Enhanced Single-photon Emission from a Quantum Dot in a Micropost Microcavity (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF) and Deterministic Single-Photon Source for Distributed Quantum Networking Group Papers (Example of Single Photon g(2)(tau) meas.)

5 4.2. Squeezed States of Light
4.2.1. The Displacement and Squeeze Operators
4.2.2. Generation of Squeezed States, Classical Squeezing
4.2.3. Homodyne Detection
4.2.4. Teleportation

Amazon logo Weissbluth, Mitchel. Photon Atom Interactions. Boston, MA: Academic Press Inc., 1989. ISBN: 9780127436609. Chapter 4.9. Section on squeezed states.

Kimble, H. J. "Quantum Fluctuations in Quantum Optics" in Fundamental Systems in Quantum Optics, Edited by J. Dalibard, J. M. Raimond, and J. Zinn-Justin. Proceeding of the Summer School in Les Houches, Session LIII, 1990. Elsevier, 1992. Extensive and Advanced Treatment of Squeezed Light.

Henry, R. W., and S. C. Glotzer. "A Squeezed-state Primer." Am. J. Phys. 56, no. 318 (1988). Basic discussion using only elementary quantum mechanics.

Teich, M. C., and B. E. A. Saleh. "Squeezed and AntiBunched Light." Physics Today, June 1990. Popular article on non-classical light.

One page, lecture notes by Dave Pritchard (PDF) (Courtesy of Dave Pritchard. Used with permission.)

DiFilippo, F., et al. "Classical Amplitude Squeezing for Precision Measurements." PRL 68, no. 2859 (1992).

Furusawa, A., et al. "Unconditional Quantum Teleportation." Science 282, no. 706 (1998).

6 4.2.5. Beam Splitter and Homodyne Detection
4.2.6. Experiments with Squeezed Light

Three pages lecture notes by W. K. (PDF)

Schumaker, B. L. "Noise in Homodyne Detection." Optics Letters 9, no. 189 (1984).

Wu, Ling-An, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu. "Generation of Squeezed States by Parametric Down Conversion." PRL 57, no. 2520 (1986).

Xiao, Min, Ling-An Wu, and H. J. Kimble. "Precision Measurement beyond the Shot-Noise Limit." PRL 59, no. 279 (1987).

Polzik, E. S., J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble. "Spectroscopy with Squeezed Light." PRL 68, no. 3020 (1992).

7 4.3. Interferometry and Entanglement
4.3.1. Gravitational Wave Detection
4.3.2. Heisenberg Limited Interferometry

Caves, C. M. "Quantum-mechanical Noise in an Interferometer." Phys. Rev. D 23 (1981): 1693-1708.

Giovannetti, Vittorio, Seth Lloyd, and Lorenzo Maccone. "Quantum-Enhanced Measurements: Beating the Standard Quantum Limit." Preprint quant-ph/0412078.

Proposal for Atom Interferometry:
Bouyer, P., M. A. Kasevich. "Heisenberg-limited Spectroscopy with Degenerate Bose-Einstein Gases." PRA 56, no. R1083 (1997).

Creation of Correlated States with Bose-Einstein Condensates:
Vogels, J. M., J. K. Chin, and W. Ketterle. "Coherent Collisions between Bose-Einstein Condensates." PRL 90, no. 030403 (2003).

8 4.3.3. Entanglement

Sackett, C. A., D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, C. Langer, V. Meyer, C. J. Myatt, M. Rowe, Q. A. Turchette, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and C. Monroe. "Experimental Entanglement of Four Particles." Nature 404, no. 256 (2000).

Amazon logo Excerpts from Nielsen, Michael A., and Isaac L. Chuang. "Schmidt Decomposition." In Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 109-117. ISBN: 9780521635035.

9 5. Basic Aspects of the Interaction between Light and Atoms  
10 5.1. Transition Amplitudes and Diagrams
5.2. Some Interaction Processes between Photons and Atoms
5.2.1. Emission
5.2.2. Absorption
5.2.3. Scattering
5.3. Resonant Scattering and Radiative Corrections

Amazon logo Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude, Jaques Dupont-Roc, and Gilbert Grynberg. Atom-Photon-Interactions, Basic Processes and Applications. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1992, pp. 15-22, complement A, chapters II and III. ISBN: 9780471293361.

Extra topic: Hanbury-Brown and Twiss Experiment and the g2 Function:
Amazon logo Baym, Gordon. Lectures on Quantum Mechanics. W. A. Benjamin, 1974, pp. 430-435. ASIN: B0006WMD6G.

Yasuda, Masami, and Fujio Shimizu. "Observation of Two-Atom Correlation of an Ultracold Neon Atomic Beam." Physical Review Letters 77, no. 15 (1996). PRL on HBT experiment with cold atoms.

Dalibard, J., J. Dupont-Roc, and Claude Cohen-Tannoudji. "Vacuum Fluctuations and Radiation Reaction: Identification of Their Respective Contributions." J. Physique 43 (1982): 1617-1638.

11 5.4. Interaction by Photon Exchange and Collisions
5.4.1. Van der Waals Interaction

Amazon logo Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude, Jaques Dupont-Roc, and Gilbert Grynberg. Atom-Photon-Interactions, Basic Processes and Applications. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1998, pp. 118-126. ISBN: 9780471293361.

Spruch, L. "Retarded, or Casimir, Long-range Potentials." Physics Today paper (Nov 1986): 37.

12 5.4.2. Casimir Interactions
5.4.3. Langevin Model for Inelastic Collisions

Course notes (WK) (PDF)

Haroche, S. "Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics" in Fundamental Systems in Quantum Optics, Edited by J. Dalibard, J. M. Raimond, and J. Zinn-Justin. Proceeding of the Summer School in Les Houches, Session LIII, 1990. Elsevier, 1992.

Four pages course notes on Inelastic and Elastic Collisions (WK) (PDF)

13 5.4.4. Elastic Collisions between Cold Atoms
5.4.5. s-wave Scattering 6. Master Equation

Metcalf, Harold. "Peter Van Der Straten, Cooling and Tapping of Neutral Atoms." Physics Reports 244, no. 203 (1994).

Chuang, Isaac. The Master Equation (PDF)

Amazon logo Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude, Jaques Dupont-Roc, and Gilbert Grynberg. Atom-Photon-Interactions, Basic Processes and Applications. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1998, chapter IV. ISBN: 9780471293361.

Amazon logo Weissbluth, Mitchel. Photon Atom Interactions. Boston, MA: Academic Press Inc., 1989, pp. 287-297. ISBN: 9780127436609.

14 7. Optical Bloch Equations
7.1. Derivation
7.2. Rotating-wave Approximation
Amazon logo Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude, Jaques Dupont-Roc, and Gilbert Grynberg. Atom-Photon-Interactions, Basic Processes and Applications. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1998, chapter V. ISBN: 9780471293361.
15 7.3. Adiabatic Elimination of Coherences
7.4. Steady-state Solution
7.5. Spectrum of Emitted Light
 
16 7.6. Mean Radiation Forces
7.6.1. Radiation Pressure Force
7.6.2. Reactive Force
7.7. Moving Atoms, Friction Force

Amazon logo Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude, Jaques Dupont-Roc, and Gilbert Grynberg. Atom-Photon-Interactions, Basic Processes and Applications. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1998, pp. 370-379. ISBN: 9780471293361.

Cohen-Tannoudji, C. Fundamental Systems in Quantum Optics, pp. 34-35. Edited by J. Dalibard, J. M. Raimond, and J. Zinn-Justin. Proceeding of the Summer School in Les Houches, Session LIII, 1990. Elsevier, 1992.

Gordon, J. P., and A. Ashkin, PRA 21, no. 1606 (1980).

17 7.8. Diffusion in a Standing Wave
7.9. Experiments on the Stimulated Light Force 8. The Dressed Atom Approach
8.1. Derivation of the Energy Levels of the Dressed Atom

Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude, Fundamental Systems in Quantum Optics, pp. 46-53. Edited by J. Dalibard, J. M. Raimond, and J. Zinn-Justin. Proceeding of the Summer School in Les Houches, Session LIII, 1990. Elsevier, 1992.

Gordon, J. P., and A. Ashkin, PRA 21, no. 1606 (1980).

Cooling Atoms with Stimulated Emission:
Aspect, A., J. Dalibard, A. Heidmann, C. Salomon, and Claude Cohen-Tannoudji. "Cooling Atoms with Stimulated Emission." Phys Rev Lett. 57, no. 14 (Oct 6, 1986): 1688-1691.

Channeling Atoms:
Salomon, C., J. Dalibard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, and Claude Cohen-Tannoudji. "Channeling Atoms in a Laser Standing Wave." Phys Rev Lett. 59, no. 15 (Oct 12, 1987): 1659-1662.

Localization of Atoms:
Jessen P. S., C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. J. Spreeuw, and C. I. Westbrook. "Observation of Quantized Motion of Rb Atoms in an Optical Field." Phys Rev Lett. 69, no. 1 (Jul 6, 1992): 49-52.

Motion of Wave Packets in Optical Lattices:
Raithel, G., W. D. Phillips, and S. L. Rolston. "Collapse and Revivals of Wave Packets in Optical Lattices." Physical Review Letters 81, no. 17 (Oct 26, 1998).

First Optical Trap:
Chu S., J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable. "Experimental Observation of Optically Trapped Atoms." Phys Rev Lett. 57, no. 3 (Jul 21, 1986): 314-317.

Far-off-resonance Trap:
Miller J. D., R. A. Cline, and D. J. Heinzen. "Far-off-resonance Optical Trapping of Atoms." Phys Rev A 47, no. 6 (June 1993): R4567-R4570.

Amazon logo Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude, Jaques Dupont-Roc, and Gilbert Grynberg. Atom-Photon-Interactions, Basic Processes and Applications. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1998. ISBN: 9780471293361. Chapter VI - worth reading!

18 8.2. Resonance Fluorescence in the Dressed Atom Picture
8.3. Dipole Forces within the Dressed Atom Picture
8.3.1. Mean Dipole Force for an Atom at Rest
8.3.2. Mean Dipole Force for a Slowly Moving Atom
8.3.3. Energy Balance in a Small Displacement

Lecture notes (PDF)

Dalibard, J., and Claude Cohen-Tannoudji. "Dressed-atom Approach to Atomic Motion in Laser Light: The Dipole Force Revisited." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, no. 1707 (1985).

19 8.3.4. Momentum Diffusion due to Dipole Force Fluctuations
8.3.5. Atoms Moving in a Standing Wave
8.3.6. Cooling in a Standing Wave 9. Spontaneous Light Force Traps

Magneto-optical Trap, Optical Earnshaw Theorem:
pp. 316-335 of the paper which was already used in lecture 1 (Nice summary on both dipole traps and radiation pressure traps)

Phillips, W. D. "Laser Cooling and Trapping of Neutral Atoms." In Laser Manipulation of Atoms and Ions. Edited by E. Arimondo, W. D. Phillips, and F. Strumia. Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course CXVIII. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1992.

Optical Earnshaw Theorem (OET):
Ashkin, A., and J. P. Gordon. "Stability of Radiation-pressure Particle Traps: An Optical Earnshaw Theorem." Optics Letters 8, no. 10 (October 1983): 511-513.

How to Circumvent the OET:
Pritchard, D. E., E. L. Raab, and V. Bagnato. "Light Traps Using Spontaneous Forces." Physical Review Letters 57, no. 3 (July 21, 1986): 310-313.

Realization of the MOT:
Raab, E. L., M. Prentiss, Alex Cable, Steven Chu, and D. E. Pritchard. "Light Traps Using Spontaneous Forces." Physical Review Letters 59, no. 23 (Dec 7, 1987): 2631-2634.

20 10. Quantum Monte Carlo Wavefunction Method
10.1. Basic Concepts
10.2. MCWF Procedure
Dalibard, J., Y. Castin, and K. Molmer. "Wave-Function Approach to Dissipative Processes in Quantum Optics." Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, no. 580 (1992).
21 10.3. Proof of Equivalence to the Optical Bloch Equations 11. Models of Decoherence
11.1. Decoherence - Definition and Perspective
11.2. Three Models of Phase Damping
11.2.1. Random Phase Noise
11.2.2. Elastic Collisions
11.2.3. Random Phase Flips
11.3. Jaynes-Cummings Collapses and Revivals
Lecture notes Models of Decoherence (PDF)
22 12. Ion Traps
12.1. Hamiltonians and Cooling
12.1.1. The Ion Trap Physical System
12.1.2. The Hamiltonian
12.1.3. Sideband Cooling - Process and Limits
12.1.4. Experimental Observations of Sideband Cooling

Blatt, "Lecture notes on Ion Trapping" in Fundamental Systems in Quantum Optics, Edited by J. Dalibard, J. M. Raimond, and J. Zinn-Justin. Proceeding of the Summer School in Les Houches, Session LIII, 1990. Elsevier, 1992.

Sideband Cooling:
Dietrich, F., J. C. Bergquist, Wayne M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland. "Laser Cooling to Zero-Point Energy of Motion." Ph. Rev. Let. 62, no. 4 (Jan 23, 1989): 403-406.

Laser Cooling of Ions:
Eschner, Jurgen, Giovanna Morigi, Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler, and Rainer Blatt. "Laser Cooling of Trapped Ions." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, no. 5 (May 2003): 1003-1015. Review paper.

23 12.2. Quantum Control of Single Ions
12.2.1. The Challenge of Quantum State Preparation
12.2.2. Review of Unusual States
12.2.3. Motional State Control in Ion Traps
12.2.4. Motional Fock, Coherent, and Schroedinger Cat States
12.2.5. Recipe for Arbitrary Motional States
Leibfried, D., R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland. "Quantum Dynamics of Single Trapped Ions." Review of Modern Physics 75 (January 2003): 281-324.
24 12.3. Quantum Computation with Trapped Ions
12.3.1. Quantum Gates and Circuits
12.3.2. The Cirac-Zoller CNOT
12.3.3. Geometric Phase Gate

Three original papers on Quantum Gates:

Monroe, C., D. M. Meekhof, B. E. King, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland. "Demonstration of a Fundamental Quantum Logic Gate." Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, no. 25 (Dec 18, 1995): 4714-4717.

Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand, Hartmut Häffner, Mark Riebe, Stephan Gulde, Gavin P. T. Lancaster, Thomas Deuschle, Christoph Becher, Christian F. Roos, Jürgen Eschner, and Rainer Blatt. "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate." Nature 422 (March 27, 2003): 408-411.

Leibfried, D., B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland. "Experimental Demonstration of a Robust, High-fidelity Geometric Two Ion-qubit Phase Gate." Nature 422 (March 27, 2003): 412-415.

25 13. Magnetic Traps and Evaporative Cooling
13.1. Stability, Majorana Flops, Magnetic Levitation
13.2. Wing's Theorem
13.3. Magnetic Trap Configurations
W. K., D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn. Varenna Lecture Notes, 1999, pp. 80-89.
26 13.4. Evaporative Cooling 14. Bose-Einstein Condensation
14.1. Homogeneous Interacting Bose Gas, Bogoliubov Solution
14.2. Elementary Excitations

Ketterle, W., and N. J. van Druten. "Evaporative Cooling of Trapped Atoms." Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37 (1986): 181-236. Relevant pages: pp. 181-193.

Amazon logo Pethick, C. J., and H. Smith. Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dilute Gases. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 205-214 and some selected pages. ISBN: 9780521665803.

27 14.3. Inhomogeneous Bose Gas, Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation
14.4. The Thomas-Fermi Approximation
14.5. Hydrodynamic Flow of a Superfluid
Amazon logo Pethick, C. J., and H. Smith. Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dilute Gases. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 146-156, 165-179. ISBN: 9780521665803.