The written requirement constitutes 50% of the student's final grade. There are three options for fulfilling this requirement of the course.
Take home final - essay type; three questions; no choice; covering all aspects of the course; open books and notes; full references required etc.
Three short papers - on topics assigned in advance, or selected by the student (approved by the instructor in advance). No more than 10 pages - fully referenced - from assigned readings or other sources as relevant.
Research paper - Here are the steps:
Roughly 30-40 pages. References must be included.