Readings

The table below contains the required readings for this course. To view the questions that accompany the required readings, see the Questions for Class Discussion section.

For additional readings, see the Recommended Readings section.

For help in approaching the readings, read Hints on the Readings (PDF).

WEEK # TOPICS READINGS
1 Introduction See the Questions for Class Discussion section
2 Social structure, classes, and political regimes

Aristotle. Politics, Book III, Parts 7–8, classics.mit.edu.

———. Politics, Book IV, Parts 3-6 and 11-13, classics.mit.edu.

———. Politics, Book V, Parts 2–3, classics.mit.edu.

———. Politics, Book VI, Part 4, classics.mit.edu.

Buy at Amazon Madison, James. "The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection (continued)." Essay 10 in The Federalist Papers. Edited by Isaac Kramnick. Penguin Classics, 1987. ISBN: 9780140444957.

Buy at Amazon Weber, Max. "Class, Status, Party." Chapter 7, Sections 2–8 in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Edited and translated by H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. Oxford University Press, 1973. ISBN: 9780195004625. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Dahl, Robert. "Subcultures, Cleavage Patterns, and Governmental Effectiveness." Chapter 7 in Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. Yale University Press, 1977. ISBN: 9780300015652.

Buy at Amazon Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. "Manifesto of the Communist Party." In The Marx-Engels Reader. 2nd ed. Edited by Robert C. Tucker. W.W. Norton & Company, 1978. ISBN: 9780393090406.
Note: Skip the preamble.

Buy at Amazon Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Evelyne Huber Stephens, and John D. Stephens. In Capitalist Development and Democracy. University of Chicago Press, 1992, pp. 45–63. ISBN: 9780226731445.

Acemoglu, Daron, and James A. Robinson. "A Theory of Political Transitions." American Economic Review 91, no. 4 (2001): 938–63.

See the Questions for Class Discussion section

3 The role of culture in democracy and economic growth

Buy at Amazon Richerson, Peter J., and Robert Boyd. "Culture is Essential." Chapter 1 in Not By Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution. University of Chicago Press, 2006. ISBN: 9780226712123.

Henrich, Joseph, Robert Boyd, et al. "In Search of Homo Economicus: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies." American Economic Review 91, no. 2 (2001): 73–8.

Guiso, Luigi, Paola Sapienza, et al. "Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes?" Journal of Economic Perspectives 20, no. 2 (2006): 23–48.

Inglehart, Ronald, and Marita Carballo. "Does Latin America Exist? (And Is There a Confucian Culture?): A Global Analysis of Cross-Cultural Differences." PS: Political Science and Politics 30, no. 1 (1997): 34–47.

de Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America, Volume I, Author's Introduction, xroads.virginia.edu.

———. Democracy in America, Volume I, Chapter III, xroads.virginia.edu.

———. Democracy in America, Volume I, Chapter XII, xroads.virginia.edu.

———. Democracy in America, Volume I, Chapter XVII, xroads.virginia.edu.

Journal entry written by Tocqueville about the states of Kentucky and Tennessee, tocqueville.org.

Tocqueville's interview with John Quincy Adams, tocqueville.org.

Buy at Amazon Almond, Gabriel A., and Sidney Verba. "The Civic Culture and Democratic Stability." Chapter XIII in The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Sage Publications Inc., 1989, pp. 356–74. ISBN: 9780803935587. 

Berman, Sheri. "Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic." World Politics 49, no. 3 (1997): 401–29.

Fish, M. Steven. "Islam and Authoritarianism." World Politics 55, no. 1 (2002): 4–37.

See the Questions for Class Discussion section

4 Constitutional choices and governmental performance

Buy at Amazon Lijphart, Arend. "Introduction." Chapter 1 in Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. 2nd ed. Yale University Press, 2012. ISBN: 9780300172027.

Buy at Amazon ———. "Executive-Legislative Relations: Patterns of Dominance and Balance of Power." Chapter 7 in Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. 2nd ed. Yale University Press, 2012. ISBN: 9780300172027.

Buy at Amazon ———. "Electoral Systems: Majority and Plurality Methods Versus Proportional Representation." Chapter 8 in Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. 2nd ed. Yale University Press, 2012. ISBN: 9780300172027.

Buy at Amazon ———. "Division of Power: The Federal-Unitary and Centralized-Decentralized Contrasts." Chapter 10 in Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. 2nd ed. Yale University Press, 2012. ISBN: 9780300172027.

Buy at Amazon Duverger, Maurice. "The Number of Parties." Book II, Chapter 1, Parts 1-2 in Political Parties: Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State. 2nd ed. Routledge Kegan & Paul, 1964. ISBN: 9780416683202.

Buy at MIT Press Buy at Amazon Persson, Torsten, and Guido Tabellini. "Introduction and Overview." Chapter 1 in The Economic Effects of Constitutions. MIT Press, 2005. ISBN: 97802626619.

Buy at MIT Press Buy at Amazon ———. "What Have We Learned?" Chapter 9 in The Economic Effects of Constitutions. MIT Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780262661928.

Tsebelis, George. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Decision Making in Political Systems: Veto Players in Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, Multicameralism, and Multipartism." (PDF - 3.9 MB) British Journal of Political Science 25, no. 3 (1995): 289–325.

See the Questions for Class Discussion section

5 Leadership

Byman, Daniel L., and Kenneth M. Pollack. "Let Us Now Praise Great Men: Bringing the Statesman Back In." International Security 25, no. 4 (2001): 107–46.

Hermann, Margaret G., Thomas Preston, et al. "Who Leads Matters: The Effects of Powerful Individuals." International Studies Review 3, no. 2 (2001): 83–131.

Jones, Benjamin F., and Benjamin A. Olken. "Hit or Miss? The Effect of Assassinations on Institutions and War." American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics 1, no. 2 (2009): 55–87.

Buy at Amazon Stepan, Alfred. "Political Leadership and Regime Breakdown: Brazil." Chapter 4 in The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Latin America. Edited by Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978. ISBN: 9780801820236.

Bunce, Valerie. "Changing Leaders and Changing Policies: The Impact of Elite Succession on Budgetary Priorities in Democratic Countries." American Journal of Political Science 24, no. 3 (1980): 373–95.

Jones, Benjamin F., and Benjamin A. Olken. "Do Leaders Matter? National Leadership and Growth Since World War II." Quarterly Journal of Economics 120, no. 3 (2005): 835–64.

Simonton, Dean Keith. "Presidential IQ, Openness, Intellectual Brilliance, and Leadership: Estimates and Correlations for 42 U.S. Chief Executives." Political Psychology 27, no. 4 (2006): 511–26.

See the Questions for Class Discussion section

6 The state and state formation

Buy at Amazon Hobbes, Thomas. "Of the Natural Condition of Mankind as concerning their Felicity and Misery." Chapter 13 in Leviathan: Or, the Matter, Forme, and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiasticall and Civil. Touchstone, 2008. ISBN: 9781416573609. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "Of the Causes, Generation, and Definition of a Commonwealth." Chapter 17 in Leviathan: Or the Matter, Forme, and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil. Touchstone, 2008. ISBN: 9781416573609. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Hume, David. "Of the Origin of Government." Essay 5, Part 1 in Essays: Moral, Political and Literary. Edited by Eugene F. Miller. 2nd ed. Liberty Fund, 1985. ISBN: 9780865970564. 

Buy at Amazon Tilly, Charles. "States and their Citizens." Chapter 4 in Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990-1992. Revised ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 1992. ISBN: 9781557863683.

Herbst, Jeffrey. "War and the State in Africa." International Security 14, no. 4 (1990): 117–39.

Centeno, Miguel Angel. "Blood and Debt: War and Taxation in Nineteenth-Century Latin America." American Journal of Sociology 102, no. 6 (1997): 1565–605.

Buy at Amazon Migdal, Joel S. "Part One: States and Societies." In Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton University Press, 1988, pp. 3–9, and 15–41. ISBN: 9780691010731. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "Part Two - Crisis and Reconsolidation: The Impact of Capitalism and Colonialism." In Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton University Press, 1988, pp. 45–80, 107–16, and 139–41. ISBN: 9780691010731. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "Part Three: The Continuing Impact of an Environment of Conflict on State and Society." In Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton University Press, 1988, pp. 206–37, and 269–77. ISBN: 9780691010731. 

Buy at Amazon Skowronek, Stephen. "The New State and American Political Development." Chapter 1 in Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities 1877–1920. Cambridge University Press, 1982. ISBN: 9780521288651. [Preview with Google Books]

See the Questions for Class Discussion section

7 Modernization and development

Buy at Amazon Lipset, Seymour Martin. "Economic Development and Democracy." Chapter 2 in Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. Expanded and updated ed. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981. ISBN: 9780801825224.

Buy at Amazon Dahl, Robert A. "Equalities and Inequalities." Chapter 6 in Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. Yale University Press, 1972, pp. 81–94. ISBN: 9780300015652.

Buy at Amazon Moore, Jr., Barrington. "Preface and Acknowledgements." In Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Beacon Press, 1993. ISBN: 9780807050736.

Buy at Amazon ———. "England and the Contributions of Violence to Gradualism." Chapter 1 in Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Beacon Press, 1993. ISBN: 9780807050736.

Buy at Amazon ———. "The Democratic Route to Modern Society." Chapter 7 in Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Beacon Press, 1993. ISBN: 9780807050736.

Buy at Amazon ———. "Revolution from Above and Fascism." Chapter 8 in Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Beacon Press, 1993. ISBN: 9780807050736.

Buy at Amazon ———. "The Peasants and Revolution." Chapter 9 in Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Beacon Press, 1993. ISBN: 9780807050736.

See the Questions for Class Discussion section

8 Political institutions and economic growth

Rodrik, Dani, Arvind Subramanian, et al. "Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development." Journal of Economic Growth 9 (2004): 131–65.

North, Douglass C. "Institutions." The Journal of Economic Perspectives 5, no. 1 (1991): 97–112.

Burnside, Craig, and David Dollar. "Aid, Policies, and Growth." American Economic Review 90, no. 4 (2000): 847–68.

Buy at Amazon Evans, Peter. "States and Industrial Transformation." Chapter 1 in Embedded Autonomy: States & Industrial Transformations. Princeton University Press, 1995, pp. 10–18. ISBN: 9780691037363.

Buy at Amazon ———. "States." Chapter 3 in Embedded Autonomy: States & Industrial Transformations. Princeton University Press, 1995. ISBN: 9780691037363.

Buy at Amazon de Soto, Hernando. "The Five Mysteries of Capital." Chapter 1 in The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. Basic Books, 2003. ISBN: 9780465016150. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "The Mystery of Missing Information." Chapter 2 in The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. Basic Books, 2003. ISBN: 9780465016150. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "By Way of Conclusion." Chapter 7 in The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. Basic Books, 2003, pp. 208–18. ISBN: 9780465016150. [Preview with Google Books]

See the Questions for Class Discussion section

9 Nationalism

Buy at Amazon Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Verso, 1991. ISBN: 9780860915461. [Preview with Google Books]

Darden, Keith, and Anna Grzymala-Busse. "The Great Divide: Literacy, Nationalism, and the Communist Collapse." World Politics 59, no. 1 (2006): 83–115.

See the Questions for Class Discussion section

10 Parties, party systems, and electoral behavior

Stokes, Donald E. "Spatial Models of Party Competition." American Political Science Review 57, no. 2 (1963): 368–77.

Riker, William H., and Peter C. Ordeshook. "A Theory of the Calculus of Voting." American Political Science Review 62, no. 1 (1968): 25-42.

Cox, Gary W. "Centripetal and Centrifugal Incentives in Electoral Systems." American Journal of Political Science 34, no. 4 (1990): 903–35.

Buy at Amazon Lipset, Seymour Martin, and Stein Rokkan. "Cleavage Structures, Party Systems, and Voter Alignments: An Introduction." In Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross-National Perspectives. Free Press, 1967. ISBN: 9780029191507.

Buy at Amazon Gallagher, Michael, Michael Laver, and Peter Mair. "Cleavage Structures and Electoral Change." Chapter 9 in Representative Government in Modern Europe. 5th ed. Open University Press, 2011. ISBN: 9780077129675.

Buy at Amazon Boix, Carles. "The Emergence of Parties and Party Systems." Chapter 21 in The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics. Edited by Carles Boix and Susan C. Stokes. Oxford University Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780199566020. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Kitschelt, Herbert. "Party Systems." Chapter 22 in The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics. Edited by Carles Boix and Susan C. Stokes. Oxford University Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780199566020.

See the Questions for Class Discussion section

11 Clientelism and patronage politics

Scott, James C. "Patron-Client Politics and Political Change in Southeast Asia." American Political Science Review 66, no. 1 (1972): 91–113.

Buy at Amazon Stokes, Susan C. "Political Clientelism." Chapter 25 in The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics. Edited by Carles Boix and Susan C. Stokes. Oxford University Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780199566020.

Buy at Amazon Kitschelt, Herbert, and Steven I. Wilkinson. "Citizen-politician linkages: an introduction." Chapter 1 in Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition. Edited by Herbert Kitschelt and Steven I. Wilkinson. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN: 9780521690041.

Buy at Amazon Chandra, Kanchan. "Counting heads: a theory of voter and elite behavior in patronage democracies." Chapter 4 in Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition. Edited by Herbert Kitschelt and Steven I. Wilkinson. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN: 9780521690041. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Magaloni, Beatriz, Alberto Diaz-Caybros, and Federico Estévez. "Clientelism and portfolio diversification: a model of electoral investment with applications to Mexico." Chapter 8 in Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition. Edited by Herbert Kitschelt and Steven I. Wilkinson. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN: 9780521690041. 

Finan, Frederico, and Laura Schechter. "Vote-Buying and Reciprocity." Econometrica 80, no. 2 (2012): 863–81.

Vicente, Pedro C. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Is Vote-buying Effective? Evidence from a Field Experiment in West Africa." (PDF - 2.3 MB) 2013. pedrovicente.org.

See the Questions for Class Discussion section

12 Corruption and monitoring government

The World Bank. "Corruption and Economic Development." Chapter 2 in Helping Countries Combat Corruption: The Role of the World Bank. September 1997. worldbank.org.

Lewis, Maureen. "Tackling Healthcare Corruption and Governance Woes in Developing Countries." Centre for Global Development. 2006. cgdev.org.

Treisman, Daniel. "What Have We Learned About the Causes of Corruption from Ten Years of Cross-National Empirical Research?" Annual Review of Political Science 10 (2007): 211–44.

Buy at Amazon Tendler, Judith. "Introduction." Chapter 1 in Good Government in the Tropics. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780801860928.

Fisman, Raymond, and Edward Miguel. "Corruption, Norms and Legal Enforcement: Evidence from Diplomatic Parking Tickets." Journal of Political Economy 115, no. 6 (2007): 1020–48.

Davis, Jennifer. "Corruption in Public Service Delivery: Experience from South Asia's Water and Sanitation Sector." World Development 32, no. 1 (2004): 53–71.

Olken, Benjamin A. "Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia." Journal of Political Economy 115, no. 2 (2007): 200–49.

Bjorkman, Martina, and Jakob Svensson. "Power to the People: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment on Community-Based Monitoring in Uganda." Quarterly Journal of Economics 124, no. 2 (2009): 735–69.

Ferraz, Claudio, and Frederico Finan. "Exposing Corrupt Politicians: The Effects of Brazil's Publicly Released Audits on Electoral Outcomes." Quarterly Journal of Economics 123, no. 2 (2008): 703–45.

Buy at Amazon Kosack, Stephen, Courtney Tolmie, and Charles C. Griffin. "Examine the spending." Chapter 4 in From the Ground Up: Improving Government Performance with Independent Monitoring Organizations. Brookings Institution Press, 2010, pp. 50–64. ISBN: 9780815704126.

See the Questions for Class Discussion section

13 Emergence and persistence of popular self-government in Athens

History of Athens, wikipedia.org

Aristotle. The Athenian Constitution, Parts 42–69, classics.mit.edu.

Buy at Amazon Dahl, Robert A. "Why Polyarchy Developed in Some Countries and Not Others." Chapter 18 in Democracy and Its Critics. Yale University Press, 1991. ISBN: 9780300049381.

Buy at Amazon Ober, Josiah. "Public Speech and the Power of the People in Democratic Athens." Chapter 3 in The Athenian Revolution: Essays on Ancient Greek Democracy and Political Theory. Princeton University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780691001906. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "The Athenian Revolution of 508/7 B.C.: Violence, Authority, and the Origins of Democracy." Chapter 4 in The Athenian Revolution: Essays on Ancient Greek Democracy and Political Theory. Princeton University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780691001906. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "How to Criticize Democracy in Late Fifth- and Fourth-Century Athens." Chapter 10 in The Athenian Revolution: Essays on Ancient Greek Democracy and Political Theory. Princeton University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780691001906. 

———. "Learning from Athens," Boston Review, March 1, 2006.

Schmitter, Philippe C. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."A Proposal for the Creation of a 'Citizen's Assembly'." (PDF) 2002.

See the Questions for Class Discussion section