|2||Key Intervenors and Their Policy Preferences||US Intervention During the Cold War
Scott, James M. Deciding to Intervene: The Reagan Doctrine and American Foreign Policy. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996, pp. 14-39.
United States and Grand Strategy After the Cold War
Krauthammer, Charles. "The Unipolar Moment." Foreign Affairs 70, no. 1 (1991): 23-33.
Posen, Barry. "Competing Visions for U.S. Grand Strategies." International Security 21, no. 3 (Winter 1996/1997): 5-53.
Miller, Benjamin. "The Logic of U.S. Military Intervention in the Post-Cold War Era." Contemporary Security Policy 19, no. 3, (December 1998): 72-109.
Daalder, Ivo. "Knowing When to Say No: The Development of US Policy For Peacekeeping." In UN Peacekeeping, American Politics, and the Uncivil Wars of the 1990s. Edited by William Durch. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1996, pp. 35-67.
Crocker, Chester. "Engaging Failing States." Foreign Affairs 82, no. 5 (September/October 2003): 32-44.
Smith, Tony. "In Defense of Intervention." Foreign Affairs 73, no. 6 (November/December 1994): 34-46.
Solarz, Stephen J., and Michael O'Hanlon. "Humanitarian Intervention: When is Force Justified?" Washington Quarterly 20 (1997): 3-14.
Stedman, Stephen John. "The New Interventionists." Foreign Affairs 72 (1993): 1-16.
Mandelbaum, Michael. "Foreign Policy as Social Work." Foreign Affairs (January/February 1996): 16-32.
Smouts, Marie-Claude. "Political Aspects of Peace-Keeping Operations." In United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations: French Policies. Edited by Brigitte Stern. NY: United Nations University, 1998, pp. 7-39.
Gill, Bates, and James Reilly. "Sovereignty, Intervention and Peacekeeping: The View from Beijing." Survival 42, no. 3, (Autumn 2000): 41-60.
Roberts, Adam. "From San Francisco to Sarajevo: The UN and the Use of Force." Survival 37, no. 4 (Winter 1995-1996): 7-28.
|3||Theories of Internal Conflicts: Origins, Nature and Extent||
Extent of Internal Conflicts
|4||Doctors, Lawyers, and Journalists||
Early Warning and Preventive Diplomacy
|5||Strategy and Intervention||
Deterrence and Coercion
|6||External Intervention and the Use of Force||Force Projection Requirements and Capabilities
Department of Defense. Annual Report to the President and the Congress. Washington, DC: GPO, 2001, pp. 49-88.
Quinlivan, James T. "Force Requirements in Stability Operations." In Parameters. Winter 1995-1996, pp. 59-69.
Shafer, D. Michael. Deadly Paradigms: The failure of U.S. Counterinsurgency Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998, pp. 115-132.
Langewiseche, William. "Peace Is Hell." The Atlantic Monthly (October 2001): pp. 51-80.
Adams, Thomas K. US Special Operations Forces in Action: The Challenge of Unconventional Warfare. London: Frank Cass, 1998, pp. 1-26.
Greenhill, Kelly M. "On Intervention to Deter Deadly Conflict: A Cautionary Prospective Analysis." In Breakthroughs. Spring 2001, pp. 36-44.
Burbach, David T. "Ready for Action? European Capabilities for Peace Operations." In Breakthroughs. Spring 1997, pp. 10-19.
Yost, David S. "The NATO Capabilities Gap and the European Union." Survival 42, no. 4 (Winter 2000): 97-128.
Congressional Budget Office. Moving U.S. Forces: Options for Strategic Mobility. February 1997.
Military Perspectives on Intervention
Johnson, Jay L., and Charles Krulak. "Forward Presence Essential to U.S. Interests." Department of Defense Speeches 11, no. 100, 1996.
Morillon, Phillipe. "The Military Aspects of Field Operations." In United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations: A Guide to French Policies. Edited by Brigitte Stern. NY: United Nations University Press, 1998, pp. 83-106.
United Kingdom Ministry of Defence. Defence Review 2001: Policy Priorities, 2001, 6 pages.
Corum, James S. "Airpower and Peace Enforcement." Airpower Journal (Winter 1996): 10-25.
Bash, Brooks L. "Airpower and Peacekeeping." Airpower Journal 9 (Spring 1995): 66-78.
Metz, Steven. "The Air Force Role in United Nations Peacekeeping." Airpower Journal (Winter 1993).
Treacher, Adrian. "A Case of Reinvention: France and Military Intervention in the 1990s." International Peacekeeping 7, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 23-40.
Thornton, Rod. "The Role of Peace Support Operations Doctrine in the British Army." International Peacekeeping 7, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 41-62.
Rogers, Elizabeth. "Economic Sanctions and Internal Conflict." In The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict. Edited by Michael E. Brown. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 411-434.
Pape, Robert A. "Why Economic Sanctions Do Not Work." International Security 22, no. 2 (Fall 1997): 90-136.
Elliott, Kimberly Ann. "The Sanctions Glass: Half Full or Completely Empty?" International Security 23, no. 1 (Summer 1998): 50-65.
Metzl, Jamie F. "Information Intervention." Foreign Affairs 76, no. 6 (November/December 1997): 15-20.
|Weiss, Thomas G. "Northern Iraq, 1991-1996: A Difficult Act to Follow?" In Military-Civilian Interactions: Intervening in Humanitarian Crises. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999, pp. 43-68.
Freedman, Lawrence, and David Boren. "'Safe Havens' for Kurds in Post-War Iraq." In To Loose the Bands of Wickedness: International Intervention in Defence of Human Rights. Edited by Nigel S. Rodley. London: Brassey's, 1993, pp. 43-92.
Rudd, Gordon. Operation Provide Comfort: Humanitarian Intervention in Northern Iraq 1991. Phd Thesis, Duke University, 1993.
Seiple, Chris. The U.S. Military/NGO Relationship in Humanitarian Interventions. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army Peacekeeping Institute, 1996.
Fatton, Robert. "The Rise, Fall, and Resurrection of President Aristide." In Haiti Renewed: Political and Economic Prospects. Edited by Robert I. Rotberg. Cambridge, MA: World Peace Foundation, 1997, pp. 136-153.
Malone, David. "Haiti and the International Community: A Case Study." Survival 39, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 126-146.
Shelton, Henry. "Contingency Operations in an Uncertain World: The Case of Haiti." Strategic Review (Fall 1998): 37-41.
Weiss, Thomas G. "Haiti, 1991-1996: Why Wait So Long?" In Military-Civilian Interactions: Intervening in Humanitarian Crises. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999, pp. 167-192.
|8||Somalia||Western, Jon. "Sources of Humanitarian Intervention." International Security 26, no. 4 (Spring 2002): 112-142.
Oakley, Robert, and John Hirsch. Somalia and Operation Restore Hope: Reflections on Peacemaking and Peacekeeping. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1995, pp. 149-173.
Bowden, Mark. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. NY: New American Library, 2001.
Lyons, Terrence, and Ahmed Samatar. Somalia: State Collapse, Multilateral Intervention, and Strategies for Political Reconstruction. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1995.
Bolton, John R. "Wrong Turn in Somalia." Foreign Affairs (January-February 1994): 56-66.
Clarke, Walter, and Jeffrey Herbst. "Somalia and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Foreign Affairs (March/April 1996): 70-85.
Crocker, Chester. "Lessons of Somalia." Foreign Affairs (May/June 1995): 2-8.
Howe, Jonathan T. "Somalia: Learning the Right Lessons." The Washington Quarterly 18, no. 3 (Summer 1995): 49-62.
Frontline. Ambush in Mogadishu. 2001.
Farrell, Theo. "Sliding Into War: The Somalia Imbroglio and US Army Peace Operations Doctrine." International Peacekeeping 2, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 194-214.
|9||Bosnia-Croatia||Burg, Steven L. The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.
Conversino, Mark J. "Executing Deliberate Force, 30 August-14 September 1995," and McLaughlin, Mark C. "Assessing the Effectiveness of Deliberate Force: Harnessing the Political-Military Connection." In Deliberate Force: A Case Study in Effective Air Campaigning. Edited by Robert C. Owen. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, 1998, pp. 131-175 and 189-197.
Silber, Laura, and Allan Little. Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation. New York: Penguin Books, 1995.
Malcolm, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. London: Macmillan, 1994.
Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide: Why the United States Let the Rwandan Tragedy Happen." The Atlantic Monthly (September 2001): 84-108.
|11||Kosovo||Judah, Tim. Kosovo: War and Revenge. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.
Independent International Commission on Kosovo. The Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, and Lessons Learned. London: Oxford University Press, 2001, pp. 1-12 and 163-198.
Posen, Barry R. "The War for Kosovo: Serbia's Political-Military Strategy." International Security 24, no. 4 (Spring 2000): 39-84.
Roberts, Adam. "NATO's 'Humanitarian War' Over Kosovo." Survival 41, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 102-123.
Hagen, William. "The Balkans' Lethal Nationalisms." Foreign Affairs 78, no. 4 (July/August 1999): 52-64.
Mandelbaum, Michael. "A Perfect Failure." Foreign Affairs 78, no. 5 (September/October 1999): 2-8.
Solana, Javier. "NATO's Success in Kosovo." Foreign Affairs 78, no. 6 (November/December 1999): 114-120.
Steinberg, James. "A Perfect Polemic." Foreign Affairs 78, no. 6 (November/December 1999): 128-133.
Kosovo Air Operations: Need to Maintain Alliance Cohesion Resulted in Doctrinal Departures. GAO-01-784, July 27, 2001, pp. 31.
Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe. Kosovo/Kosova: As Seen, As Told: An analysis of the human rights findings of the OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission October 1998 to June 1999. Warsaw: OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, 1999, pp. 21-30.
Department of Defense. Report to Congress: Kosovo/Allied Force After Action Review (January 31, 2000). Kosovo/Operation Allied Force After Action Report (PDF - 2.2 MB).
Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe. Kosovo/Kosova: As Seen, As Told: An analysis of the human rights findings of the OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission October 1998 to June 1999. Undated.
Malcolm, Noel. Kosovo: A Short History. New York: HarperPerennial, 1999.
Clark, Wesley. Waging Modern War. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.
|13||Student Presentations (cont.)|