Readings

In addition to the bibliography of readings used in the course, see the readings by week below.

Required Texts

Buy at Amazon Pape, Robert. Bombing to Win: Air Power and Coercion in War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780521007801.

Buy at Amazon Judah, Tim. Kosovo: War and Revenge. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780300083545.

Buy at Amazon Kuperman, Alan J. The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda. Washington, DC: Brookings, 2001. ISBN: 9780815700852.

Buy at Amazon Burg, Steven L. The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. ISBN: 9781563243080.

Buy at Amazon Lyons, Terrence, and Ahmed Samatar. Somalia: State Collapse, Multilateral Intervention, and Strategies for Political Reconstruction. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1995. ISBN: 9780815753513.

Buy at Amazon Bowden, Mark. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. NY: New American Library, 1992. ISBN: 9780029160015.

Readings by Week

WEEK # TOPICS READINGS
1 Introduction  
2 Key Intervenors and Their Policy Preferences US Intervention During the Cold War

Scott, James M. Deciding to Intervene: The Reagan Doctrine and American Foreign Policy. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996, pp. 14-39.

United States and Grand Strategy After the Cold War

Krauthammer, Charles. "The Unipolar Moment." Foreign Affairs 70, no. 1 (1991): 23-33.

Posen, Barry. "Competing Visions for U.S. Grand Strategies." International Security 21, no. 3 (Winter 1996/1997): 5-53.

United States

Miller, Benjamin. "The Logic of U.S. Military Intervention in the Post-Cold War Era." Contemporary Security Policy 19, no. 3, (December 1998): 72-109.

Daalder, Ivo. "Knowing When to Say No: The Development of US Policy For Peacekeeping." In UN Peacekeeping, American Politics, and the Uncivil Wars of the 1990s. Edited by William Durch. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1996, pp. 35-67.

Pro-Intervention

Crocker, Chester. "Engaging Failing States." Foreign Affairs 82, no. 5 (September/October 2003): 32-44.

Smith, Tony. "In Defense of Intervention." Foreign Affairs 73, no. 6 (November/December 1994): 34-46.

Solarz, Stephen J., and Michael O'Hanlon. "Humanitarian Intervention: When is Force Justified?" Washington Quarterly 20 (1997): 3-14.

Anti-Intervention

Stedman, Stephen John. "The New Interventionists." Foreign Affairs 72 (1993): 1-16.

Mandelbaum, Michael. "Foreign Policy as Social Work." Foreign Affairs (January/February 1996): 16-32.

Europe

Smouts, Marie-Claude. "Political Aspects of Peace-Keeping Operations." In United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations: French Policies. Edited by Brigitte Stern. NY: United Nations University, 1998, pp. 7-39.

China

Gill, Bates, and James Reilly. "Sovereignty, Intervention and Peacekeeping: The View from Beijing." Survival 42, no. 3, (Autumn 2000): 41-60.

United Nations

Roberts, Adam. "From San Francisco to Sarajevo: The UN and the Use of Force." Survival 37, no. 4 (Winter 1995-1996): 7-28.
3 Theories of Internal Conflicts: Origins, Nature and Extent

Extent of Internal Conflicts

Eriksson, Mikael, Peter Wallensteen, and Margareta Sollenberg. "Armed Conflict, 1989-2002." Journal of Peace Research 40, no. 5 (September 2003): 593-607.

Origin of Internal Conflicts

Evera, Steven Van, and Daniel Byman. "Why They Fight: Hypotheses on the Causes of Contemporary Deadly Conflict." Security Studies 7, no. 3 (Spring 1998): 1-50.

Primordial

O'Brien, Connor Cruise. "The Wrath of Ages: Nationalism's Primordial Roots." Foreign Affairs 72, no. 5 (November/December 1993): 142-149.

Rotten Elites

Brown, Michael E. "The Causes of Internal Conflicts." In Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict. Edited by Michael E. Brown. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997, pp. 1-31.

Thugs

Mueller, John. "The Banality of 'Ethnic War'." International Security 25, no. 1 (Summer 2000): 42-70.

Browning, Christopher. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. New York: HarperCollins, 1992, pp. 159-192.

Security Dilemma

Posen, Barry. "The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict." Survival 35, no. 1 (1993): 27-47.

Nature of Internal Conflicts

Weiner, Myron. "Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods: An Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows." International Security 21, no. 1 (Summer 1996): 5-42.

Recommended

"Major Armed Conflicts." In SIPRI Yearbook 2000: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Valentino, Benjamin. "Final Solutions: The Causes of Mass Killing and Genocide." Security Studies 9, no. 3 (Spring 2000): 1-62.

4 Doctors, Lawyers, and Journalists

Early Warning and Preventive Diplomacy

Betts, Richard. Surprise Attack: Lessons for Defense Planning. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1982, pp. 87-149.

Stedman, Stephen. "Alchemy for a New World Order." Foreign Affairs (May/June 1995): 14-21.

Lund, Michael. "Underrating Preventive Diplomacy." Foreign Affairs (July/August 1995): 160-163.

Atwood and Stedman letters in Foreign Affairs (September/October 1995): 189-191.

Harff, Barbara, and Ted Robert Gurr. "Systematic Early Warning of Humanitarian Emergencies." Journal of Peace Research 35, no. 5 (1998): 551-579.

Demars, William. "Waiting for Early Warning: Humanitarian Action After the Cold War." Journal of Refugee Studies 8, no. 4 (1995): 390-410.

De Waal, Alex, and Larry Minear. "Responses to Demars." Journal of Refugee Studies 8, no. 4 (1995): 411-417.

The Role of the Media

Strobel, Warren. "The CNN Effect." American Journalism Review (May 1996): 32-34.

Livingston, Steven. Clarifying the CNN Effect. Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government, June 1997, pp. 18.

Gowing, Nik. Media Coverage: Help or Hindrance in Conflict Prevention? NY: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1997, pp. 41.

Bob, Clifford. The Marketing of Rebellion in Global Civil Society: Political Insurgencies, International Media, and Growth of Transnational Support. PhD Thesis, MIT, 1997, pp. 11-36.

The Role of Non Government Organizations (NGOs)

Minear, Larry, and Philippe Guillot. Soldiers to the Rescue: Humanitarian Lessons from Rwanda. Paris: OECD, 1996, pp. 33-51.

Weiss, Thomas. "Nongovernmental Organizations and Internal Conflict." In The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict. Edited by Michael E. Brown. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 435-460.

International Law

Roberts, Adam, and Richard Guelff. "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948)." In Documents on the Laws of War. London: Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 179-188.

The Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949. Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War.

Roberts, Adam, and Richard Guelff. "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II) (8 June 1977)". In Documents on the Laws of War. London: Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 481-498.

Evans, Malcolm, ed. "Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951) and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (1967)." In Blackstone's International Law Documents. 3rd Ed. London: Blackstone Press, 1991, pp. 73-85.

United Nations Charter. Chapters VI and VII.

Ryniker, Anne. "The ICRC's Position on 'Humanitarian Intervention'." International Review of the Red Cross 83, no. 842, (June 2001): 527-532.

Bass, Gary J. Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. Introduction and Conclusion, pp. 3-36, 276-285.

Brown, Bartram. "Statute of the ICC: Past, Present and Future." In The United States and the International Criminal Court: National Security and International Law. Edited by Sarah Sewall and Carl Kaysen. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000, pp. 61-84.

Ethics, Morals and Norms

The Responsibility to Protect: Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty.
Ottawa, Ontario: International Development Research Centre, 2001, pp. 2, 7-21, 69-85.

Hoffmann, Stanley. "The Politics and Ethics of Military Intervention." Survival 37, no. 4 (Winter 1995-1996): 29-51.

Chopra, Jarat, and Thomas G. Weiss. "Sovereignty Is No Longer Sacrosanct: Codifying Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 6 (1992): 95-117.

5 Strategy and Intervention

Deterrence and Coercion

Schelling, Thomas C. Arms and Influence. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966, pp. 69-91.

Pape, Robert. Bombing to Win: Air Power and Coercion in War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996, pp. 1-86.

Shimshoni, Jonathan. Israel and Conventional Deterrence: Border Warfare from 1953 to 1970. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988, pp. 5-30.

Exit Strategy

Rose, Gideon. "The Exit Strategy Delusion." Foreign Affairs 77, no. 1, (January/February 1998): 56-67.

Typology of Military Interventions

Posen, Barry R. "Military Responses to Refugee Disasters." International Security 21, no. 1 (Summer 1996): 72-111.

Conditions for Success

Kaufmann, Chaim. "Intervention in Ethnic and Ideological Civil Wars: Why One Can be Done and the Other Can't." Security Studies 6, no. 1 (Autumn 1996): 62-100.

Walter, Barbara. "The Critical Barrier to Civil War Settlement." International Organization 51, no. 1 (Summer 1997): 335-364.

Betts, Richard K. "The Delusion of Impartial Intervention." Foreign Affairs (November/December 1994): 20-33.

Seybolt, Taylor. "What Makes Humanitarian Military Intervention Effective." Draft Paper (Stockholm: SIPRI, undated), 23 pages.

Peacekeeping

Berdal, Matts. "Lessons Not Learned: The Use of Force in 'Peace Operations' in the 1990s." International Peacekeeping 7, no. 4 (Winter 2000): 55-74.

"Doctrine, Strategy and Decision-Making for Peace Operations." In Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (Brahimi Report). 2000, 11 pages.

6 External Intervention and the Use of Force Force Projection Requirements and Capabilities

United States

Department of Defense. Annual Report to the President and the Congress. Washington, DC: GPO, 2001, pp. 49-88.

Quinlivan, James T. "Force Requirements in Stability Operations." In Parameters. Winter 1995-1996, pp. 59-69.

Shafer, D. Michael. Deadly Paradigms: The failure of U.S. Counterinsurgency Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998, pp. 115-132.

Langewiseche, William. "Peace Is Hell." The Atlantic Monthly (October 2001): pp. 51-80.

Adams, Thomas K. US Special Operations Forces in Action: The Challenge of Unconventional Warfare. London: Frank Cass, 1998, pp. 1-26.

Greenhill, Kelly M. "On Intervention to Deter Deadly Conflict: A Cautionary Prospective Analysis." In Breakthroughs. Spring 2001, pp. 36-44.

Europe

Burbach, David T. "Ready for Action? European Capabilities for Peace Operations." In Breakthroughs. Spring 1997, pp. 10-19.

Yost, David S. "The NATO Capabilities Gap and the European Union." Survival 42, no. 4 (Winter 2000): 97-128.

Recommended

Congressional Budget Office. Moving U.S. Forces: Options for Strategic Mobility. February 1997.

Military Perspectives on Intervention

Johnson, Jay L., and Charles Krulak. "Forward Presence Essential to U.S. Interests." Department of Defense Speeches 11, no. 100, 1996.

Morillon, Phillipe. "The Military Aspects of Field Operations." In United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations: A Guide to French Policies. Edited by Brigitte Stern. NY: United Nations University Press, 1998, pp. 83-106.

United Kingdom Ministry of Defence. Defence Review 2001: Policy Priorities, 2001, 6 pages.

Corum, James S. "Airpower and Peace Enforcement." Airpower Journal (Winter 1996): 10-25.

Recommended

Bash, Brooks L. "Airpower and Peacekeeping." Airpower Journal 9 (Spring 1995): 66-78.

Metz, Steven. "The Air Force Role in United Nations Peacekeeping." Airpower Journal (Winter 1993).

Treacher, Adrian. "A Case of Reinvention: France and Military Intervention in the 1990s." International Peacekeeping 7, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 23-40.

Thornton, Rod. "The Role of Peace Support Operations Doctrine in the British Army." International Peacekeeping 7, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 41-62.

Non-Military Intervention

Rogers, Elizabeth. "Economic Sanctions and Internal Conflict." In The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict. Edited by Michael E. Brown. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 411-434.

Pape, Robert A. "Why Economic Sanctions Do Not Work." International Security 22, no. 2 (Fall 1997): 90-136.

Elliott, Kimberly Ann. "The Sanctions Glass: Half Full or Completely Empty?" International Security 23, no. 1 (Summer 1998): 50-65.

Information Warfare

Metzl, Jamie F. "Information Intervention." Foreign Affairs 76, no. 6 (November/December 1997): 15-20.
7

Northern Iraq



















Haiti

Weiss, Thomas G. "Northern Iraq, 1991-1996: A Difficult Act to Follow?" In Military-Civilian Interactions: Intervening in Humanitarian Crises. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999, pp. 43-68.

Freedman, Lawrence, and David Boren. "'Safe Havens' for Kurds in Post-War Iraq." In To Loose the Bands of Wickedness: International Intervention in Defence of Human Rights. Edited by Nigel S. Rodley. London: Brassey's, 1993, pp. 43-92.

Recommended

Rudd, Gordon. Operation Provide Comfort: Humanitarian Intervention in Northern Iraq 1991. Phd Thesis, Duke University, 1993.

Seiple, Chris. The U.S. Military/NGO Relationship in Humanitarian Interventions. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army Peacekeeping Institute, 1996.

Fatton, Robert. "The Rise, Fall, and Resurrection of President Aristide." In Haiti Renewed: Political and Economic Prospects. Edited by Robert I. Rotberg. Cambridge, MA: World Peace Foundation, 1997, pp. 136-153.

Malone, David. "Haiti and the International Community: A Case Study." Survival 39, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 126-146.

Shelton, Henry. "Contingency Operations in an Uncertain World: The Case of Haiti." Strategic Review (Fall 1998): 37-41.

Weiss, Thomas G. "Haiti, 1991-1996: Why Wait So Long?" In Military-Civilian Interactions: Intervening in Humanitarian Crises. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999, pp. 167-192.
8 Somalia Western, Jon. "Sources of Humanitarian Intervention." International Security 26, no. 4 (Spring 2002): 112-142.

Oakley, Robert, and John Hirsch. Somalia and Operation Restore Hope: Reflections on Peacemaking and Peacekeeping. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1995, pp. 149-173.

Bowden, Mark. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. NY: New American Library, 2001.

Lyons, Terrence, and Ahmed Samatar. Somalia: State Collapse, Multilateral Intervention, and Strategies for Political Reconstruction. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1995.

Bolton, John R. "Wrong Turn in Somalia." Foreign Affairs (January-February 1994): 56-66.

Clarke, Walter, and Jeffrey Herbst. "Somalia and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Foreign Affairs (March/April 1996): 70-85.

Crocker, Chester. "Lessons of Somalia." Foreign Affairs (May/June 1995): 2-8.

Howe, Jonathan T. "Somalia: Learning the Right Lessons." The Washington Quarterly 18, no. 3 (Summer 1995): 49-62.

Recommended

Frontline. Ambush in Mogadishu. 2001.

Farrell, Theo. "Sliding Into War: The Somalia Imbroglio and US Army Peace Operations Doctrine." International Peacekeeping 2, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 194-214.
9 Bosnia-Croatia Burg, Steven L. The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

Conversino, Mark J. "Executing Deliberate Force, 30 August-14 September 1995," and McLaughlin, Mark C. "Assessing the Effectiveness of Deliberate Force: Harnessing the Political-Military Connection." In Deliberate Force: A Case Study in Effective Air Campaigning. Edited by Robert C. Owen. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, 1998, pp. 131-175 and 189-197.

Recommended

Silber, Laura, and Allan Little. Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation. New York: Penguin Books, 1995.

Malcolm, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. London: Macmillan, 1994.
10 Rwanda

Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide: Why the United States Let the Rwandan Tragedy Happen." The Atlantic Monthly (September 2001): 84-108.

Kuperman, Alan J. The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda. Washington, DC: Brookings, 2001.

Presidential Decision Directive 25. U.S. Policy on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations (May 3, 1994): 12 pp. The White House Washington.

Destexhe, Alain. "The Third Genocide." Foreign Policy 97 (Winter 1994-95): 3-17.

Prunier, Gerard. "The Great Lakes Crisis." Current History 96, no. 610 (May 1997): 193-199.

Feil, Scott. Preventing Genocide: How the Early Use of Force Might Have Succeeded in Rwanda. A report to the Carnegie Commission on the Prevention of Deadly Conflict, 1998, 58 pages.

Prunier, GĂ©rard. The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995, pp. 74-92 and 159-191.

Recommended

Forges, Alison De. "Leave None to Tell the Story": Genocide in Rwanda. NY: Human Rights Watch, 1999.

11 Kosovo Judah, Tim. Kosovo: War and Revenge. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

Independent International Commission on Kosovo. The Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, and Lessons Learned. London: Oxford University Press, 2001, pp. 1-12 and 163-198.

Posen, Barry R. "The War for Kosovo: Serbia's Political-Military Strategy." International Security 24, no. 4 (Spring 2000): 39-84.

Roberts, Adam. "NATO's 'Humanitarian War' Over Kosovo." Survival 41, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 102-123.

Hagen, William. "The Balkans' Lethal Nationalisms." Foreign Affairs 78, no. 4 (July/August 1999): 52-64.

Mandelbaum, Michael. "A Perfect Failure." Foreign Affairs 78, no. 5 (September/October 1999): 2-8.

Solana, Javier. "NATO's Success in Kosovo." Foreign Affairs 78, no. 6 (November/December 1999): 114-120.

Steinberg, James. "A Perfect Polemic." Foreign Affairs 78, no. 6 (November/December 1999): 128-133.

Kosovo Air Operations: Need to Maintain Alliance Cohesion Resulted in Doctrinal Departures. GAO-01-784, July 27, 2001, pp. 31.

Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe. Kosovo/Kosova: As Seen, As Told: An analysis of the human rights findings of the OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission October 1998 to June 1999. Warsaw: OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, 1999, pp. 21-30.

Recommended

Department of Defense. Report to Congress: Kosovo/Allied Force After Action Review (January 31, 2000). Kosovo/Operation Allied Force After Action Report (PDF - 2.2 MB).

Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe. Kosovo/Kosova: As Seen, As Told: An analysis of the human rights findings of the OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission October 1998 to June 1999. Undated.

Malcolm, Noel. Kosovo: A Short History. New York: HarperPerennial, 1999.

Clark, Wesley. Waging Modern War. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.
12 Student Presentations  
13 Student Presentations (cont.)  
14 Wrap-Up