Readings

Part I: Fundamentals: Land Use Planning, Regulation, and Growth Management

SES # TOPICS READINGS
Week 1: Introduction
1 Course Introduction
Week 2: Project Introduction and Start Up
2 Community Planning Project Introduced
3 Discussion of Client Project. Project Teams Formed
Week 3: Planning for Growth and Zoning Controls
4 Land Use Planning and Regulation - An Overview Kaiser, Edward J., and David R. Godschalk. "Twentieth Century Land Use Planning: A Stalwart Family Tree." Journal of the American Planning Association 61, 3 (Summer 1995): 365-384. A positive assessment.

Popper, Frank J. "Understanding American Land Use Regulation Since 1970." Journal of the American Planning Association 54, 3 (Summer 1988): 291-301.
A good overview of the evolution of the system.

Jacobs, Harvey M. "Fighting over Land: America's Legacy…America's Future?" Journal of the American Planning Association 65, 2 (Spring 1999): 141-149.

Teitz, Michael B. "Reflections and Research on the U.S. Experience." In The Profession of City Planning: Changes, Images, and Challenges 1950 - 2000. Edited by Lloyd Rodwin, and Bish Sanyal. New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers, 2000, pp. 275-304.
5 Zoning Controls - The Basics Frank, S., and Judith Getzels, eds. "Zoning." Chap. 15 of The Practice of Local Government Planning. Washington, D.C.:International City Management Association in cooperation with the American Planning Association, 1979, pp. 416-443.
Richard Babcock's concise look at the evolution of zoning.

Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Return to Euclid." Planning (May 1997): 4-8.

Foster, Kelleann, et. al. "Zoning on the Line." Planning (Nov 1996): 10-13.

Garvin, Alexander. "Land Use Regulations." Chapter 16 in The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp. 356-372.
Nice history of zoning in New York City, and good illustrations of bulk and density controls.

Thomas, June Manning, and Marsha Ritzdorf, eds. "The Racial Origins of Zoning." Part One of Urban Planning and the African American Community: In the Shadows. Edited by Christopher Silver. Sage Publications, 1997, pp. 23-42.

If time permits, skim through another reading from this text shown below:

Ritzdorf, Marsha. Locked Out of Paradise: Contemporary Exclusionary Zoning, the Supreme Court, African Americans, 1970 to the Present. Pp. 43-57.
This entire book has been placed on reserve at Rotch Library.
Week 4: Making a Plan: Where to Begin?
6 Plan-Making at the Community Level Neuman, Michael. "Does Planning Need the Plan?" Journal of the American Planning Association 64, 2 (Spring 1998): 208-220.

Baer, William C. "General Plan Evaluation Criteria: An Approach to Making Better Plans." Journal of the American Planning Association 63, 3 (Summer 1997): 329-344.
"Would you know a good plan if you saw one?"

Selected plans successfully used by a communities will be placed on reserve at the Rotch Library. (Skim through to get a general sense of plan content and organization.) Phil Herr, former instructor of the class, and a distinguished consulting planner, will share his experience about this subject.
7 Imaging Needham Center and its Streets Lynch, Kevin. "The Image of the Environment." Chap. 1 in Image of the City. Cambridge, MA: The Technology Press and Harvard University Press, 1960, pp. 1-13.

Jacobs, Allan B. "Making Great Streets." Chap. 4 in Great Streets. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993, pp. 269-308.
Week 5: Growth Management and Growth Rate Controls
8 State and Regional Planning Mandates versus Home Rule Callies, David L. "The Quiet Revolution Revisited: A Quarter Century of Progress." Chap. 2 in Modernizing State Planning Statues: The Growing Smart Working Papers. Planners Advisory Service, Report No. 462/463, American Planning Association, 1996, pp. 19-26.
An overview of the approach in ten states.

Burby, Raymond J., et. al. "Is State-Mandated Planning Effective?" Land Use Law 45, 10 (Oct 1993): 3-9.

Herr, Philip B. "The Cape Cod Village: An Endangered Species." Changing Cities. Spring 1992, pp. 7- 9, 53.
The former instructor of this course offers insights about the unintended consequences of the regulatory provisions of the Cape Cod Commission regional growth management model.

Flint, Anthony. "Bourne Panel at Odds on Project." Boston Globe (22 July 2001): B1 and B4.
Debate over regional review issues for local project with major impact.

Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Go Badgers, Fight Sprawl." Planning (May 1997): 14-17.
Regional plan stirs concerns in townships.

Alexander, Frank S. "Inherent Tensions Between Home Rule and Regional Planning." Wake Forest Law Review. Winston-Salem, Fall 2000, pp. 539-561.
The Georgia experience.

Wheeler, Stephen M. "The New Regionalism: Characteristics of an Emerging Movement." Journal of the American Planning Association 68, 3 (Summer 2002): 267-278.

Armando Carbonell, former Executive Director of the Cape Cod Commission will join the class to discuss the challenge of regional planning amidst a strong "home rule" culture.
9 The Growth Management System and Growth Controls: Local and Regional Issues Chinitz, Benjamin. "Good for the Town, Bad for the Nation?" Journal of the American Planning Association 56, 1 (Winter 1990): 3-8.
Some interesting questions and arguments are advanced. Is the conclusion surprising?

Fischel, William A. "Growth Management Reconsidered: Good for the Town, Bad for the Nation?" Journal of the American Planning Association 57, 3 (Summer 1991): 341-344.
The debate continues.

Nelson, Arthur C., and James B. Duncan, et. al. "The Purposes of Growth Management." Chap. 1 in Growth Management Principles and Practices. Chicago, IL: Planners Press, American Planning Association, 1995, pp. 1-18.
This book has been placed on reserve at the Rotch Library. Several copies of this chapter are also on reserve.

DeGrove, John M., et. al. Balanced Growth: A Planning Guide for Local Government. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association (ICMA), 1991. From Part 1, Growth Management Policy, "Growth Management: Past, Present, Future," Elizabeth A. Deakin, pp. 3-10., and "Fifteen Ways to Make Growth Management Work," Nancy Alexander, pp. 11-17.

Calavita, Nico. "Vale of Tears." Planning (March 1997): 18-21.
A critical assessment of growth control measures in San Diego.

Salkin, Patricia E. "Barriers to Affordable Housing: Are Land Use Controls the Scapegoat?" Land Use Law & Zoning Digest 45, 4 (April 1993): 3-7.

Nelson, Arthur C., and David R. Peterman. "Does Growth Management Matter? The Effect of Growth Management on Economic Performance." Journal of Planning Education and Research (Spring 2000): 277-285.

Keene, John C. "Social Equity and Metropolitan Growth." Planning for a New Century: The Regional Agenda. Edited by Jonathan Barnett. Washington D.C.: Island Press, 2001, pp. 49-62.

Pendall, Rolf. "Local Land Use Regulation and the Chain of Exclusion." Journal of the American Planning Association 66, 2 (Spring 2000): 125-142.
Week 6: Visioning, Zoning Innovations
10 Visioning Klein, Bill. "Citizen Participation: Whose Vision is It?" Agenda for America's Communities. American Planning Association, May 1993, pp. 1-12.

Naylor, Amy R. "Citizen Participation in Brunswick, Maine." Planners' Casebook. American Planning Association, Spring 1994, pp. 1-8.
A non-traditional approach to involving citizens in the Planning Process.

Shipley, Robert, and Ross Newkirk. "Visioning: Did Anybody See Where it Came From?" Journal of Planning Literature 12, 4 (May 1998): 407-414.
Useful cautions and questions.

Tauxe, Caroline S. "Marginalizing Public Participation in Local Planning: An Ethnographic Account." Journal of the American Planning Association 61, 4 (Autumn 1995): 471-481.
Bureaucratic norms and the need for cultural sensitivity.

Barrett, Judi. Project Manager, Community Opportunities Group, will discuss the challenge of facilitating and managing a public visioning process.
11 Zoning Innovations Hinshaw, Mark. "Rezone or Dezone?" Planning (June 2000): 4-9. Time to overhaul the system.

Porter, Douglas R., Patrick L. Phillips, and Terry J. Lassar. "Introduction to Flexible Zoning." Chap. 1 in Flexible Zoning and How It Works. Washington: The Urban Land Institute, 1988, pp. 3-14.
An overview and model application of performance zoning.

Jaffe, Martin. "Performance Zoning: A Reassessment." Land Use Law 45, 3 (March 1993): 3-9.
While focused on legal and regulatory issues, this evaluation of actual applications offers important "real world" lessons.

DeGrove, John M., et. al. Balanced Growth: A Planning Guide for Local Government. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association (ICMA), 1991. From Part 2, Growth Management Techniques, "TDRs: An Innovative Approach to Growth Management, Barbarina Heyerdahl, pp. 63-65.

Garvin, Alexander."Land Use Regulations." Chap. 16 in The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp. 372-381.
(See sections on Incentives and Special Districts.)

Morris, Marya. Incentive Zoning: Meeting Urban Design and Affordable Housing Objectives. Chicago, IL: Planners Advisory Service, Report No. 494, American Planning Association, 2000.
Legal issues, urban design and affordable housing topics discussed in reference to incentive zoning. Skim text for general content.

Kendig, Lane, Susan Connor, Cranston Byrd, and Judy Heyman. "The Concept of Performance Zoning." Part One in Performance Zoning. Washington, D.C.: Planners Press, American Planning Association, 1980, pp. 3-50.
If you have any free time, perusal of this book in its entirety is worthwhile. It has been placed on reserve at the Rotch Library.

Porter, Douglas R., ed. Performance Standards for Growth Management. Chicago, IL: Planners Advisory Service, Report No. 461, American Planning Association, 1996. Chapter 2: "Performance Standards and Point Systems in Western Communities," William Davidson, pp. 7-12; and Chapter 5: "Leveraging Growth Management with APFOs," William E. Baumgaertner et. al., pp. 23-30.
This report has been placed on reserve at the Rotch Library.

Part II: Emerging Issues, Trends, Methods and Approaches

SES # TOPICS READINGS
Week 7: New Urbanism and Transit-Oriented Development
12 Neotraditional Planning, New Urbanism Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Repent, Ye Sinners, Repent." Planning (Aug 1989): 4-10; 13.
An early description of NTD.

Middleton, D. Scott. "Celebration, Florida: Breaking New Ground." Urban Land 56, 2 (Feb 1997): 32-36, 54-55.
New urbanism goes Disney.

Mandel, Charles. "It Fakes a Village." THIS (May/Jun 1997): 13-16.
A view from the north.

Calthorpe, Peter. "New Urbanism and the Apologists for Sprawl." Places (Spring 2000): 67-69.
This whole journal edition is devoted to New Urbanism, with a number of case studies.

Marshall, Alex. "A Tale of Two Towns: Kissimmee versus Celebration and the New Urbanism." How Cities Work: Suburbs, Sprawl, and the Roads Not Taken. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000, pp. 1-39.

Southworth, Michael. "Walkable Suburbs: An Evaluation of Neotraditional Communities at the Urban Edge. " Journal of the American Planning Association 63, 21 (Winter 1997): 28-44.
A comparative analysis of neotradtional developments with a turn-of-the-century streetcar suburb.
13 Transit-Oriented Development (and discussion of its applicability to the Needham project). Calthorpe, Peter. "Guidelines." The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993. Section on pages 41-49.
This book has been placed on reserve at the Rotch Library, and is worth reviewing in entirety.

Tumlin, Jeffery, and Adam Millard-Ball. "How to Make Transit-Oriented Development Work." Planning (May 2003): 14-19.

Flint, Anthony. "Frustrating Development." Boston Globe (7 Jun 2003): B1.

Miara, Jim. "On Route." Urban Land 60, 5 (May 2001): 84-90.
A changing culture on transit and development.

Boarnet, Marlon G., and Nicholas S. Compin. "Transportation-Oriented Development in San Diego County: The Incremental Implementation of a Planning Idea." Journal of the American Planning Association 65, 1 (Winter 1999): 80-95.
Goals, barriers, and actual results.
Week 8: Community Design, Placemaking
14 Community Design and Alternative Regulatory Approaches. What's Applicable to the Needham Project? Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Dense, Denser, Denser Still." Planning (Aug 2002): 4-9.

Pawlukiewicz, Michael. "Embracing Density." Urban Land 61, 7 (Jul 2002): 18-20.

Fader, Steven. Density by Design: New Directions in Residential Development. 2nd ed. Washington D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 2000, pp. 1-19.
Useful ideas to consider.

Lee, Thomas, L. "Place Making in Suburbia." Urban Land 59, 10 (Oct 2000): 72-79, 112-113.

Salvesen, David. "The Making of Place." Urban Land 61, 7 (Jul 2002): 36-41.
Do these principles apply to our suburban context?

Duerksen, Christopher J. "Form, Character, and Context: New Directions in Land Use Regulations." American Planning Association Annual Conference (Apr 1996): 1-5 and illustrations. Community Form Plan, Summary Paper: Vision, Guiding Principles, and Form Districts. Cornerstone 2020. Louisville and Jefferson County Comprehensive Plan (Jan 1996).

Duany, Andres, and Emily Talen. "Transect Planning." Journal of the American Planning Association 68, 3 (Summer 2002): 245-266.
Planning for various habitats and forms. Design Review and Community Design Standards, City of Portland Oregon. Review table of contents of code to show alternative and discretionary design review procedures (beyond historical or cultural overlay districts.)

Nelessen, Anton Clarence. Visions for a New American Dream. Chicago, Illinois: Planners Press, 1994.
The originator of the visual preference survey advances process and principles for the creation and design of small communities. Worth perusing for ideas of potential relevance to the client project. This book in its entirety is worthwhile, and it has been placed on reserve at the Rotch Library.
15 Project Workshop Day
Week 9: Sprawl and Smart Growth
16 Sprawl and the Evolution of Suburbia Project Team Discussions with Instructor and Client Liaisons. Scan through sprawl and smart growth web sites and links, such as Sprawl Watch clearing house, Smart Growth Online, Planners Web, SuburbanSprawl. Kunstler, James Howard. "The Evil Empire." Chap. 7 in The Geography of Nowhere. Simon & Schuster, New York: Touchstone, 1994, pp. 113-131.
This book is worth purchasing and reading in entirety.

Katz, Bruce, and Jennifer Bradley. "Divided We Sprawl." The Atlantic Monthly (Dec 1999): 26, 28, 30, 38-42.
The challenge of metropolitanism.

DiLorenzo, Thomas J. "Suburban Legends." Society (Nov/Dec 2000): 11-18.
Ponder this perspective.

Miara, Jim. "Fueling Sprawl." Urban Land 59, 5 (May 2000): 78-79, 109.
High-tech and "smart firms" become culprits.

Barnett, Jonathan. The Fractured Metropolis: Improving the New City, Restoring the Old City, Reshaping the Region. Harper Collins Publishers, New York: IconEditions, 1996. Chapter 3: "Suburban Sprawl: Its Prevention and Cure," pp. 47-74; Chapter 4: "Creating Communities," pp. 75-91.
This book has also been placed on reserve at the Rotch Library.
17 Smart Growth Katz, Bruce. "The Permanent Campaign." Urban Land 62, 5 (May 2003): 44-52.

Pawlukiewicz, Michael. "What is Smart Growth?" Urban Land 57, 6 (Jun 1998): 45-48.

Downs, Anthony. "What does 'Smart Growth Really Mean?" Planning (Apr 2001): 20-25.

Krieger, Alex. "Beyond the Rhetoric of Smart Growth." Architecture (Jun 1999): 53-57.

Krieger, Alex. "Seven Wise (though possibly impractical) Goals for Smart Growth Advocates." Smart Growth: Form and Consequences. Edited by Szold and Carbonell. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2002, pp. 102-109.

Conte, Christopher R. "The Boys of Sprawl." Governing (May 2000): 28-33.
Smart Growth advocates beware! The free-market advocates mobilize!

Blaesser, Brian, W. "Growth Management: A Developer's Perspective." Development Magazine 29, 3: 6, 76.

Burchell, Robert W., David Listokin, and Catherine C. Galley. "Smart Growth: More Than a Ghost of Urban Policy Past, Less Than a Bold New Horizon." Housing Policy Debate 11, 4: 821-879.
For those who want to read more about this topic.

Part III: Other Topics and Techniques

SES # TOPICS READINGS
Week 10: Traffic Calming, Linking Land Use and Transportation
18 Traffic Calming Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Drive Nicely." Planning 64, 12 (Dec 1998): 12-15.
Cities, including Cambridge, begin to embrace traffic calming.

Knapp, Keith, K. "Traffic-Calming Basics." Civil Engineering. New York: Jan 2000, pp. 46-49.

Hoyle, Cynthia L. Traffic Calming. Planners Advisory Service Report #456, American Planning Association. Jul 1995.
This publication has been placed on reserve at the Rotch Library. (Skim through for a sense of the concept and various techniques.)

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) inaugurated a new website dedicated to all the known and/or electronically publicized transportation programs and studies that pertain to traffic calming. See the link below:
Traffic Calming
Traffic Calming guru, Heidi Richards of VHB, will speak about this topic.
19 The Mobility Challenge for Planning: Linking Land Use andTransportation Downs, Anthony. "The Basic Situation." Part 1 in Stuck in Traffic. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, and Cambridge, MA: The Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1992, pp. 7-22.
This book has been placed on reserve at the Rotch Library. Students may wish to skim through the rest of the text to get a general sense of content.

Berman, Wayne. "Travel Demand Management: Thoughts on the New Role for TDM as a Management and Operations Strategy." Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Journal (Sept 2002): 24-28.

Frank, Lawrence D., and Robert T. Dunphy. "Smart Growth and Transportation." Urban Land 57, 5 (May 1998): 58-63, 76-77.

Cervero, Robert. The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry. Washington D.C.: Island Press, 1998, pp. 72-105.

Giuliano, Genevieve. "Transportation Demand Management: Promise or Panacea?" Journal of the American Planning Association 58, 3 (Summer 1992): 327-335.
Does TDM really work?
Week 11: Edge Cities
20 Edge Cities Garreau, Joel. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier. Anchor Books, New York: Doubleday, 1991. Chapter 1: "The Search for the Future Inside Ourselves," pp. 3-15; and Chapter 3: "Boston: Edge City Limits," pp. 69-97.
This book and its author (a journalist, not a planner) require us to re-evaluate and explore the new, emerging corporate and community landscape. This book has been placed on reserve at the Rotch Library.

Vanderbilt, Tom. "Revolt of the Nice." The Baffler, 7: 61-67.
A less benign perspective.

Barnett, Jonathan. "Turning Edge Cities into Real Cities." Planning (Nov 2002): 10-13.

Bowen, William M., and Deborah Kimble. "Edge Cities in Context." Edited by Richard D. Bingham. Beyond Edge Cities. New York: Garland Publishing, 1997, pp. 3-22.

Part IV: Integration and Implementation

SES # TOPICS READINGS
Week 12: Using Incentives for Plan Implementation
21 Project Workshop Day
22 More on Incentive-Based Techniques and Methods to Broaden Housing Affordability Kayden, Jerold. "Plaza Suite." Planning (Mar 2000): 16-19.

Lassar, Terry Jill. "Great Expectations: The Limits of Incentive Zoning." Urban Land 49, 5 (May 1990): 12-15.

White, Mark S. "Affirmative Measures: Using Land-Use Controls to Provide Affordable Housing." Chap. 2 in Affordable Housing. Planners Advisory Service, Report No. 441. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association, 1992, pp. 17-39.
These measures deserve serious consideration as devices to broaden affordability.

Downs, Anthony. "How City-Planning Practices Affect Metropolitan-Area Housing Markets and Vice Versa." The Profession of City Planning: Changes, Images, and Challenges 1950 - 2000. Edited by Lloyd Rodwin, and Bish Sanyal. Rutgers, New Brunswick N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research, 2000, pp. 117-127.

Students should search online for incentive-based zoning provisions to discuss in class. The application of this approach to Needham will be discussed.
Week 13: Managing Community Character: Emerging Issues and Strategies
23 Managing Community Character
(Project Workshop Day.)
Beaumont, Constance E. How Superstore Sprawl Can Harm Communities. National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1994.
Beware of the box retailer! This book has been placed on reserve at the Rotch Library. Read Introduction and Chapter 8, peruse other chapters.

Herr, Philip B. "The Case of the Northeastern Village." Historic Preservation Forum 6, 5 (Sept/Oct 1992): 20-28.

Knack, Ruth. "Cutting Monster Homes Down to Size." Planning (Oct 1999): 4-9.

Larsen, Larissa. "Character Counts." Planning (Nov 2000): 22-23.

Duerksen, Christopher J. Aesthetics, Community Character, and the Law. American Planning Association. Planning Advisory Service no. 489/490, 1999.
Weeks 14 & 15: Final Project Preparation & Synthesis
24 Project Workshop Day
25 Project Team Discussions and Final Document Planning
26 The Role of Planning and the Planner in Society: Class Wrap up and Synthesis Friedmann, John. "Toward a Non-Euclidian Mode of Planning," and response commentary from Sam Casella and Daniel Lauber. Journal of the American Planning Association 59, 4 (Autumn 1993): 482-486.
This commentary, counterpoint, and debate is worth pondering.

McClendon, Bruce W., and Anthony James Catanese, eds. "Thirty How-To's for Success." Chap. 6 in Planners on Planning: Leading Planners offer Real-Life Lessons on What Works, What Doesn't, and Why. Edited by Paul C. Zucker. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996, pp. 77-88.
Recommended leadership styles and survival skills for planners.

Szold, Terry. "Merging Place-Making and Process in Local Practice." The Profession of City Planning: Changes, Images, and Challenges 1950 - 2000. Edited by Lloyd Rodwin, and Bish Sanyal. Rutgers, New Brunswick N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research, 2000, pp. 36-42.

Glazer, Nathan. "The Public's Image of the Profession." The Profession of City Planning: Changes, Images, and Challenges 1950 - 2000. Edited by Lloyd Rodwin, and Bish Sanyal. Rutgers, New Brunswick N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research, 2000, pp. 224-230.

Bartholomew, Keith. "The Evolution of Non-Governmental Land Use Planning Organizations." Journal of the American Planning Association 65, 4 (Autumn 1999): 357-363.
NGOs begin to broaden their mission and role.

Birch, Eugenie Ladner. "Practitioners and the Art of Planning." Journal of Planning Education and Research (Summer 2001): 407-422.