|Part I: Fundamentals: Land use Planning, Regulation, and Growth Management|
|Week 1: Introduction|
|Week 2: Project Introduction and Start-up|
|2||Community Planning Project Introduced||Terry's Tips (PDF) |
Scope of Work (PDF)
|3||Discussion of Client Project|
|Week 3: Planning for Growth and Zoning Controls|
|4||Land use Planning and Regulation - An Overview||Kaiser, Edward J., and David R. Godschalk. "Twentieth Century Land Use Planning: A Stalwart Family Tree." Journal of the American Planning Association 61, no. 3 (Summer 1995): 365-384. |
A positive assessment.
Godschalk, David. "Land Use Planning Challenges: Coping With Conflicts in Visions of Sustainable Development and Livable Communities." Journal of the American Planning Association 70, no. 1 (Winter 2004): 5-13.
Jacobs, Harvey M. "Fighting over Land: America's Legacy...America's Future?" Journal of the American Planning Association 65, no. 2 (Spring 1999): 141-149.
Teitz, Michael B. "Reflections and Research on the U.S. Experience." In The Profession of City Planning: Changes, Images, and Challenges 1950 - 2000. Edited by Lloyd Rodwin and Bish Sanyal. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers, 2000, pp. 275-304. ISBN: 0882851659.
|5||Zoning Controls - The Basics|| So, Frank S., and Judith Getzels, eds. "Zoning." Chapter 15 in The Practice of Local Government Planning. Washington, DC: International City Management Association in cooperation with the American Planning Association, 1979, pp. 416-443. ISBN: 0873260201. |
Richard Babcock's concise look at the evolution of zoning.
Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Return to Euclid." Planning (May 1997): 4-8.
Foster, Kelleann, et al. "Zoning on the Line." Planning (November 1996): 10-13.
Garvin, Alexander. "Land Use Regulations." Chapter 16 in The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp. 356-372. ISBN: 0070229198.
Nice history of zoning in New York City, and good illustrations of bulk and density controls.
Silver, Christopher. "The Racial Origins of Zoning." From Part One in Urban Planning and the African American Community: In the Shadows. Edited by June Manning Thomas and Marsha Ritzdorf. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997, pp. 23-42. ISBN: 0803972342.
Ritzdorf, Marsha. "Locked Out of Paradise: Contemporary Exclusionary Zoning, the Supreme Court, African Americans, 1970 to the Present." In Urban Planning and the African American Community: In the Shadows. Edited by June Manning Thomas and Marsha Ritzdorf. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997, pp. 43-57. ISBN: 0803972342.
Applicable sections of the Lowell Zoning Ordinance will be reviewed and discussed.
|Week 4: Making a Plan: Where to Begin?|
|6||Plan-making at the Community Level||Neuman, Michael. "Does Planning Need the Plan?" Journal of the American Planning Association 64, no. 2 (Spring 1998): 208-220. |
Baer, William C. "General Plan Evaluation Criteria: An Approach to Making Better Plans." Journal of the American Planning Association 63, no. 3 (Summer 1997): 329-344.
Would you know a good plan if you saw one?
View student work from Fall 2003.
|7||Imaging Centralville|| Lynch, Kevin. "The Image of the Environment." Chapter 1 in Image of the City. Cambridge, MA: The Technology Press and Harvard University Press, 1960, pp. 1-13. ISBN: 0262620014. |
Jacobs, Allan B. "Making Great Streets." Chapter 4 in Great Streets. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993, pp. 269-308. ISBN: 0262600234.
|Week 5: Visioning; The Growth Management System: Local and Regional Issues|
|8||Visioning||Klein, Bill. "Citizen Participation: Whose Vision is It?" American Planning Association, Agenda for America's Communities (May 1993): 1-12. |
Naylor, Amy R. "Citizen Participation in Brunswick, Maine." American Planning Association, Planners' Casebook (Spring 1994): 1-8.
A non-traditional approach to involving citizens in the Planning Process.
Shipley, Robert, and Ross Newkirk. "Visioning: Did Anybody See Where it Came From?" Journal of Planning Literature 12, no. 4 (May 1998): 407-414.
Useful cautions and questions.
Tauxe, Caroline S. "Marginalizing Public Participation in Local Planning: An Ethnographic Account." Journal of the American Planning Association 61, no. 4 (Autumn 1995): 471-481.
Bureaucratic norms and the need for cultural sensitivity.
|9||The Growth Management System: Local and Regional Issues||Chinitz, Benjamin. "Good for the Town, Bad for the Nation?" Journal of the American Planning Association 56, no. 1 (Winter 1990): 3-8. |
Some interesting questions and arguments are advanced. Is the conclusion surprising?
Fischel, William A. "Growth Management Reconsidered: Good for the Town, Bad for the Nation?" Journal of the American Planning Association 57, no. 3 (Summer 1991): 341-344.
The debate continues.
Nelson, Arthur C., and James B. Duncan, et al. "The Purposes of Growth Management." Chapter 1 in Growth Management Principles and Practices. Chicago, IL: Planners Press, American Planning Association, 1995, pp. 1-18. ISBN: 0918286921.
Flint, Anthony. "Bourne Panel at Odds on Project." Boston Globe (July 22, 2001): B1, B4.
Debate over regional review issues for local project with major impact.
Salkin, Patricia E. "Barriers to Affordable Housing: Are Land Use Controls the Scapegoat?" Land Use Law & Zoning Digest 45, no. 4 (April 1993): 3-7.
Keene, John C. "Social Equity and Metropolitan Growth." In Planning for a New Century: The Regional Agenda. Edited by Jonathan Barnett. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001, pp. 49-62. ISBN: 1559638060.
Alexander, Frank S. "Inherent Tensions Between Home Rule and Regional Planning." Wake Forest Law Review. Fall 2000, pp. 539-561. Winston-Salem.
The Georgia experience.
Wheeler, Stephen M. "The New Regionalism: Characteristics of an Emerging Movement." Journal of the American Planning Association 68, no. 3 (Summer 2002): 267-278.
|Week 6: Zoning Innovations|
|10||Zoning Innovations||Hinshaw, Mark. "Rezone or Dezone?" Planning (June 2000): 4-9. |
Time to overhaul the system.
Porter, Douglas R., Patrick L. Phillips, and Terry J. Lassar. "Introduction to Flexible Zoning." Chapter 1 in Flexible Zoning and How It Works. Washington, DC: The Urban Land Institute, 1988, pp. 3-14. ISBN: 0874206863.
An overview and model application of performance zoning.
Jaffe, Martin. "Performance Zoning: A Reassessment." Land Use Law 45, no. 3 (March 1993): 3-9.
While focused on legal and regulatory issues, this evaluation of actual applications offers important "real world" lessons.
Staley, Samuel, and Eric R. Claeys. "Is the Future of Development Regulation Based in the Past? Toward a Market-Oriented, Innovation Friendly Framework." Journal of Urban Planning and Development. Special Issue on Innovating Regulations in Urban Planning and Development (Forthcoming, December 2005.)
Garvin, Alexander. "Land Use Regulations." Chapter 16 in The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp. 372-381. ISBN: 0070229198.
(See sections on Incentives and Special Districts.)
Morris, Marya. Incentive Zoning: Meeting Urban Design and Affordable Housing Objectives. Planners Advisory Service, Report no. 494. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association, 2000. ISBN: 1884829473.
Legal issues, urban design and affordable housing topics discussed in reference to incentive zoning. Skim text for general content.
Kendig, Lane, Susan Connor, Cranston Byrd, and Judy Heyman. "The Concept of Performance Zoning." Part One in Performance Zoning. Washington, DC: Planners Press, American Planning Association, 1980, pp. 3-50. ISBN: 0918286182.
If you have any free time, perusal of this book in its entirety is worthwhile.
|Part II: Neighborhood Planning and Place-Making: Trends, Methods and Approaches|
|Week 7: Lowell Presentations|
|11||Dry Run - Presentation to George||Thomas, June. "Neighborhood Planning: Uses of Oral History." Journal of Planning History 2, no. 1 (February 2004): 50-70. |
Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Dense, Denser, Denser Still." Planning (August 2002): 4-9.
Pawlukiewicz, Michael. "Embracing Density." Urban Land 61, no. 7 (July 2002): 18-20.
Fader, Steven. Density by Design: New Directions in Residential Development. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute, 2000, pp. 1-19. ISBN: 0874208335.
Useful ideas to consider.
Salvesen, David. "The Making of Place." Urban Land 61, no. 7 (July 2002): 36-41.
Do these principles apply to our project context?
|12||Work Day - Evening Presentation at Lowell||Kennedy, Maureen, and Paul Leonard. Dealing With Neighborhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification and Policy Choices. A Discussion Paper Prepared for The Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, April 2001. |
Bergsman, Steve. "Community Renewal: Activating Chicago's Washington Park." Urban Land 63, no. 10 (October 2004): 104-107.
Seidman, Karl F. Revitalizing Commerce for American Cities: A Practitioner's Guide to Urban Main Street Programs. The Fannie Mae Foundation, September 2004. (PDF - 1.8MB)
NBDM Overview: What is the Neighborhood Business Development Methodology.
|Week 8: Neighborhood Planning: History and Future Directions / Community Design, Placemaking, Formbased Codes|
|13||The Neighborhood Unit and Community Design||Williams, Brian. "Designing a Downtown." Planning (December 2004): 20-23. |
Design review without formal standards in Columbus, Ohio.
Ellis, Cliff. "The New Urbanism: Critiques and Rebuttals." Journal of Urban Design 7, no. 3 (2002): 261-291.
Nasar, Jack L. "Does Neotraditional Development Build Community?" Journal of Planning Education and Research 23, no. 1 (Fall 2003): 58-68.
Mandel, Charles. "It Fakes a Village." THIS (May/June 1997): 13-16.
A view from the north.
Schmitz, Adrienne. "The New Suburbia." Urban Land 63, no. 5 (May 2004): 52-57.
Duany, Andrés, and David Brain. "Regulating as if Humans Matter: The Transect and Post-Suburban Planning." In Regulating Place: Standards and the Shaping of Urban America. Edited by Eran Ben-Joseph and Terry S. Szold. New York, NY: Routledge, 2005. ISBN: 0415948754.
Duerksen, Christopher J. "Form, Character, and Context: New Directions in Land Use Regulations." American Planning Association Annual Conference (April 1996): 1-5 and illustrations.
Community Form Plan, Summary Paper: Vision, Guiding Principles, and Form Districts. Cornerstone 2020, Louisville and Jefferson County Comprehensive Plan, January 1996.
Municipal Code Library by Lexis Nexis - Search the Web to evaluate design review and design standards from other cities and towns.
Nelessen, Anton Clarence. Visions for a New American Dream. Chicago, IL: Planners Press, 1994. ISBN: 1884829007.
The originator of the visual preference survey advances process and principles for the creation and design of small communities. Worth perusing for ideas of potential relevance to the client project.
Kohr, Todd. From Form to Function: An Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Potential of Form-Based Zoning Codes. MIT DUSP Thesis 2004. (PDF - 5.5 MB)
|14||Project Workshop Day|
|Part III: Planning and Designing Responsive Environments|
|Week 9: Traffic Calming, Street Design|
|15||Street Design||McCann, Barbara. "Complete the Streets!" Planning (May 2005): 18-23. |
Pedestrians and cyclists are integral parts of complete streets.
State of North Carolina. Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) Guidelines. North Carolina Department of Transportation: Division of Highways, August 2000.
City of Toronto Planning and Development. Streetscape Manual. Toronto, ONT., Canada: City of Toronto, 1995.
Skim text for general and relevant content.
National Main Street Center. Guiding Design on Main Street. Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1988. Skim text for general and relevant content.
Great Streets Database
Bike Plan Source - Information to use to make a community a better place for bicycling
|16||Traffic Calming||Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Drive Nicely." Planning 64, no. 12 (December 1998): 12-15. |
Cities, including Cambridge, begin to embrace traffic calming.
Knapp, Keith K. "Traffic-Calming Basics." Civil Engineering. New York, January 2000, pp. 46-49.
Hoyle, Cynthia L. Traffic Calming. Planners Advisory Service Report no. 456, American Planning Association, July 1995.
Skim through for a sense of the concept and various techniques.
Traffic Calming: The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) - A new Web site dedicated to all the known and/or electronically publicized transportation programs and studies that pertain to traffic calming.
Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Traffic Calming Library
|Week 10: Sprawl, The Strip, and Smart Development|
|17||Thwarting Sprawl, Smart Growth, and the Evolution of Suburbia||Scan through sprawl and smart growth Web sites and links, such as: |
Smart Growth Online
Sprawl and Growth Topics Covered in the Planning Commissioners Journal
Metropolis St. Louis: Suburban Sprawl
Kunstler, James Howard. "The Evil Empire." Chapter 7 in The Geography of Nowhere. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1994, pp. 113-131. ISBN: 0671707744.
This book is worth purchasing and reading in entirety.
DiLorenzo, Thomas J. "Suburban Legends." Society (November/December 2000): 11-18.
Ponder this perspective.
Miara, Jim. "Fueling Sprawl." Urban Land 59, no. 5 (May 2000): 78-79, 109.
High-tech and "smart firms" become culprits.
Katz, Bruce. "The Permanent Campaign." Urban Land 62, no. 5 (May 2003): 44-52.
Downs, Anthony. "What does 'Smart Growth Really Mean?" Planning (April 2001): 20-25.
Krieger, Alex. "Beyond the Rhetoric of Smart Growth." Architecture (June 1999): 53-57.
———. "Seven Wise (though possibly impractical) Goals for Smart Growth Advocates." In Smart Growth: Form and Consequences. Edited by Szold and Carbonell. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2002, pp. 102-109. ISBN: 1558441514.
Conte, Christopher R. "The Boys of Sprawl." Governing (May 2000): 28-33.
Smart Growth advocates beware! The free-market advocates mobilize!
Blaesser, Brian W. "Growth Management: A Developer's Perspective." Development Magazine XXIX, no. 3: 6, 76.
Beyard, Michael D., and Michael Pawlukiewicz. Ten Principles for Reinventing America's Suburban Strips. Washington, DC: The Urban Land Institute, 2001.
Barnett, Jonathan. "Suburban Sprawl: Its Prevention and Cure," and "Creating Communities." in The Fractured Metropolis: Improving the New City, Restoring the Old City, Reshaping the Region. IconEditions, New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers, 1996, chapters 3 and 4, pp. 47-74, 75-91. ISBN: 0064302229.
Burchell, Robert W., David Listokin, and Catherine C. Galley. "Smart Growth: More Than a Ghost of Urban Policy Past, Less Than a Bold New Horizon." Housing Policy Debate 11, no. 4: 821-879.
For those who want to read more about this topic.
|Week 11: Linking Land use and Transportation|
|18||The Mobility Challenge for Planning |
Transit-Oriented and Infill Development
| Downs, Anthony. "The Basic Situation." Part 1 in Stuck in Traffic. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, and Cambridge, MA: The Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1992, pp. 7-22. ISBN: 0815719299. |
Berman, Wayne. "Travel Demand Management: Thoughts on the New Role for TDM as a Management and Operations Strategy." Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Journal (September 2002): 24-28. Washington.
Frank, Lawrence D., and Robert T. Dunphy. "Smart Growth and Transportation." Urban Land 57, no. 5 (May 1998): 58-63, 76-77.
Calthorpe, Peter. "Guidelines." Section in The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993, pp. 41-49. ISBN: 1878271687.
Tumlin, Jeffery, and Adam Millard-Ball. "How to Make Transit-Oriented Development Work." Planning (May 2003): 14-19.
Strauss, Mark E., and Lawrence M. Rosenbloom. "Making TOD Real." Urban Land 63, no. 5 (May 2004): 14, 17.
Flint, Anthony. "Frustrating Development." Boston Globe (June 7, 2003): B1.
Cervero, Robert. The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998, pp. 72-105. ISBN: 1559635916.
|19||Ecological Considerations||Smart Site Practices for Redevelopment and Infill Projects Redevelopment. Center for Watershed Protection, October 2001. (PDF) |
Enlow, Clair. "Planning-Rethinking Streets as Parks-Seattle's Open Space Strategy Shifts its Emphasis Away from Traditional Parks to an Evolving "Urban Ecosystem" that Focuses on City Streets." Landscape Architecture 92 (2002): 52-58.
Rishbeth, C. "Ethnic Minority Groups and the Design of Public Open Space: An Inclusive Landscape?" Landscape Research 26, no. 4 (2001): 351-366.
Fleming, Nancy L. "Urban Rivers Reborn." Urban Land 64, no. 5 (May 2005): 111-116.
Tarnay, Stella, and Ed McMahon. "Toward Green Urbanism." Urban Land 64, no. 6 (June 2005): 54-59.
|Part IV: Integration and Implementation|
|Week 12: Using Incentives for Plan Implementation|
|20||More on Incentive-based Techniques and Methods to Broaden Housing Affordability||White, S. Mark. "Affirmative Measures: Using Land-Use Controls to Provide Affordable Housing." Chapter 2 in Affordable Housing. Planners Advisory Service, Report no. 441. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association, 1992, pp. 17-39. |
These measures deserve serious consideration as devices to broaden affordability.
Porter, Douglas, R. "Inclusionary Zoning." Urban Land 63, no. 1 (January 2004): 27-31.
Legal issues and beyond.
Downs, Anthony. "How City-Planning Practices Affect Metropolitan-Area Housing Markets and Vice Versa." In The Profession of City Planning: Changes, Images, and Challenges 1950 - 2000. Edited by Lloyd Rodwin and Bish Sanyal. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers, 2000, pp. 117-127. ISBN: 0882851659.
Kayden, Jerold. "Plaza Suite." Planning (March 2000): 16-19.
Lassar, Terry Jill. "Great Expectations: The Limits of Incentive Zoning." Urban Land 49, no. 5 (May 1990): 12-15.
Students should search online for incentive-based zoning provisions to discuss in class.
|Week 13: Final Plan Recommendations and Implementation Strategies|
|21||Project Workshop Day|
|22||Client Meeting with Project Teams||Final plan recommendations will be presented by student project teams to our client and the public the first week of December.|
|Weeks 14 and 15: Final Project Preparation and Synthesis|
|23||Project Workshop Day|
|24||The Role of Planning and the Planner in Society: Class Wrap-up and Synthesis||Friedmann, John. "Toward a Non-Euclidian Mode of Planning." And response commentary from Sam Casella and Daniel Lauber. Journal of the American Planning Association 59, no. 4 (Autumn 1993): 482-486. |
Zucker, Paul C. "Thirty How-To's for Success." Chapter 6 in Planners on Planning: Leading Planners offer Real-Life Lessons on What Works, What Doesn't, and Why. Edited by Bruce W. McClendon and Anthony James Catanese. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Publishers, 1996, pp. 77-88. ISBN: 0787902853.
Recommended leadership styles and survival skills for planners.
Szold, Terry. "Merging Place-Making and Process in Local Practice." In The Profession of City Planning: Changes, Images, and Challenges 1950 - 2000. Edited by Lloyd Rodwin and Bish Sanyal. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers, 2000, pp. 36-42. ISBN: 0882851659.
Glazer, Nathan. "The Public's Image of the Profession." In The Profession of City Planning: Changes, Images, and Challenges 1950 - 2000. Edited by Lloyd Rodwin and Bish Sanyal. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers, 2000, pp. 224-230. ISBN: 0882851659.
Bartholomew, Keith. "The Evolution of Non-Governmental Land Use Planning Organizations." Journal of the American Planning Association 65, no. 4 (Autumn 1999): 357-363.
NGOs begin to broaden their mission and role.
Birch, Eugenie Ladner. "Practitioners and the Art of Planning." Journal of Planning Education and Research (Summer 2001): 407-422.
|25||Submission of Final Plan Reports|