In addition to the assigned readings, the professor has provided a list of recommended readings, which are located below the table.

I. Introduction
1 First class / overview No readings
2 The context: the state and economic development

Evans, Peter. "The Eclipse of the State? Reflections on Stateness in an Era of Globalization." World Politics 50 (1997): 62-87. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 5.3MB)

Bruton, Henry. "A Reconsideration of Import Substitution." Journal of Economic Literature 36 (1998): 903-936. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Bardhan, Pranab. "What Makes a Miracle? Some Myths about the Rise of China and India." Boston Review, January / February, 2008.

Huang, Yasheng. "China Could Learn from India." Kantipur Daily, February 2, 2006.

II. The informal sector

Amazon logo Portes, Alejandro. "The Informal Economy and Its Paradoxes." Chapter 17 in The Handbook of Economic Sociology. 2nd ed. Edited by Neil J. Smelser and Richard Swedberg. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995. ISBN: 9780691121260.

Amazon logo Saavedra-Chanduvi, Jaime. "The Informal Sector and the State: Institutions, Inequality, and Social Norms." In Informality: Exit and Exclusion. By Guillermo Perry, William Maloney, Omar Arias, Pablo Fajnzylber, Andrew Mason, and Jaime Saavedra-Chanduvi. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2007. ISBN: 9780821370926. Required: pp.215-223 (up to "The tax side..."), rest optional.


Greenhouse, Steven. "Waging War, From Wall Street to Corner Grocery; Beyond the High-Profile Cases, Spitzer Helps Low-Wage Workers." The New York Times, January 21, 2004, Section A, p. 25.


Maloney, William. "Informality Revisited." World Development 32, no. 7 (2004): 1159-1178.

Amazon logo Peattie, Lisa. "What is to be Done With the Informal Sector? A Case Study of Shoe Manufacturing in Colombia." In Towards a Political Economy of Urbanization. Edited by Helen Safa. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press, 1982, pp. 208-232. ISBN: 9780195613070.


Amazon logo Perry, Guillermo, William Maloney, Omar Arias, Pablo Fajnzylber, Andrew Mason, and Jaime Saavedra-Chanduvi. Informality: Exit and Exclusion. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2007, pp. 147-164 to "Cross country evidence...," and pp. 175-177. ISBN: 9780821370926.

Galli, Rossana, and David Kucera. "Labor Standards and Informal Employment in Latin America." World Development 32, no. 5 (2004): 809-828.

Amazon logo Kuruvilla, Sarosh, and Bryan Mundell. "Introduction." In Colonialism, Nationalism and the Institutionalization of Industrial Relations in the Third World. Edited by Sarosh Kuruvilla and Bryan Mundell. Stamford, CT: JAI Press, 1999. ISBN: 9780762304967.

III. The implementing organizations, their professionals and street-level bureaucrats
5 Organizational analysis as lens.

Amazon logo DiMaggio, Paul, and Walter Powell, eds. "The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organization Fields." In The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1991, Chapter 3, pp. 63-82. ISBN: 9780226677095.

Amazon logo Meyer, John, and Brian Rowan. "Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony." In The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1991, see especially pp. 54-62. ISBN: 9780226677095.


Joshi, Anu. "Public Sector Unions and Policy Reform: The Case of Joint Forest Management in West Bengal." Draft article. Brighton, UK: University of Sussex, Centre for the Future State, Institute of Development Studies, 2006.

Crook, Richard, and Joseph Ayee. "Urban Service Partnerships, 'Street-Level Bureaucrats' and Environmental Sanitation in Mumasi and Accra, Ghana: Coping with Organisational Change in the Public Bureaucracy." Development Policy Review 24, no. 1 (2006): 51-73.

7 Microcredit organizations

Amazon logo Goetz, Anne Marie. "Local Heroes? How Field Workers Determine Policy Outcomes." In Women Development Workers: Implementing Rural Credit Programmes in Bangladesh. New Delhi, India: Sage Press, 2001. ISBN: 9789840516100.

Jain, Pankaj, and Mick Moore. "What Makes Micro-credit Programmes Effective? Fashionable Fallacies and Workable Realities." Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies, IDS Working Paper 177, November 2002.


Dugger, Celia. "Debate Stirs Over Tiny Loans for World's Poorest." The New York Times, April 29, 2004, Section 1, p. 1.

Amazon logo Armendáriz, Beatriz, and Jonathan Morduch. "Microfinance: Where Do We Stand?" In Financial Development and Economic Growth: Explaining the Links. Edited by Charles Goodhart. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. ISBN: 9781403920669.

Amazon logo Armendáriz de Aghion, Beatriz and Jonathan Murduch. The Economics of Microfinance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780262014106.

Morduch, Jonathan. "Microfinance Without Trade-Offs." Revised version of a keynote address delivered at the 3rd International Conference on Finance for Growth and Poverty Reduction, held at the University of Manchester, April 10, 2002. Draft dated August 26, 2002, sent by the author.

8 Agricultural organizations

Bianchi, Tito. "The Agronomists and Land Improvement: The Meeting of Politics and Technocracy." Redistribution Within a Democratic Society: The "Finished Business" of the Italian Agrarian Reform. PhD dissertation, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2002. Abstract (p. 3), Introduction (pp. 9-14 sufficient); Chapter 5 (pp. 159-185).

Amazon logo Bunker, Stephan. "Collaboration, Competition, and Corruption in Colonization Projects." In Underdeveloping the Amazon. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1990, pp. 180-198. ISBN: 9780226080321.


Tendler, Judith. "What Happens in an Agrarian Reform." Inter-Country Examinations of Small Farmer Organizations-Honduras. Prepared for the Office of Development Programs of the Latin American Bureau of A.I.D. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 3.4MB)

9 Donor organizations public & non-government, large & small

Amazon logo Tendler, Judith. Inside Foreign Aid. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977. ISBN: 9780801820168. Chapter 1, "Introduction"; chapter 2, "The Task and the Organizational Fit"; chapter 5, "The Abundance of Foreign Development," pp. 54-58, 71-72, rest optional; chapter 7, "The Organizational Economy of Large Projects"; chapter 8, "Conclusion," pp. 102-110, rest optional.

Amazon logo Hirschman, Albert O. Development Projects Observed. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1967 revised, 1997. ISBN: 9780815736516. Read Author’s 1994 preface, pp. vii-xii; Chapter 1 “The Principle of the Hiding Hand,” pp. 9-34; Chapter 2 “Uncertainties,” pp. 35-85 (pp. 75-85 optional); Chapter 3 “Latitudes and Discipline,” pp. 86-127; Chapter 5 “Project Appraisal: The Centrality of Side-Effects,” pp. 160-188. Optional: Foreword, Acknowledgements, and Chapter 4 “Project Design: Trait-Taking and Trait-Making, pp. 128-159.


Ban, Carolyn, and Mark Huddleston. "Exporting Administrative Reform to Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: The Role of the Consultants in Technical Assistance." Paper prepared for Annual Meeting of the Association of Public Policy and Management, Washington, D.C., November 1999.

10 Labor inspectors

Pfeffer, Jeffrey. "Human Resources from an Organizational Behavior Perspective: Some Paradoxes." Journal of Economic Perspectives 21, no. 4 (2007): 115-134.

Pires, Roberto. "Promoting Sustainable Compliance: Styles of Labour Inspection and Compliance Outcomes in Brazil." International Labour Review 147, no. 2-3, 2008. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)


Piore, Michael, and Andrew Schrank. "Toward Managed Flexibility: The Revival of Labour Inspection in the Latin World." International Labour Review 147, no. 1 (2008): 1-23.

Schrank, Andrew. "Professionalization and Probity in the Patrimonial State: Labor Law Enforcement in the Dominican Republic." Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico, Department of Sociology. (Submitted for publication).

Pires, Roberto. "The Forging of Regulatory Capacity: Coproduction Arrangements and Enforcement Styles in the Monitoring of the Labor Regulation." Draft Paper, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, December 13, 2006.

IV. Linkages rural and urban, agricultural and manufacturing
11 Linkages and other development triggers

Hirschman, Albert O. "Preliminary Explorations" and "Unbalanced Growth: An Espousal." In The Strategy of Economic Development. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1958, pp. 1-24 (pp. 1-7, rest optional) and pp. 62075.

Amazon logo Hirschman, Albert O. "Linkages." In The New Palgrave Economic Development. Edited by John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 1989. ISBN: 9780393958508.

"Externalities" (A 3-page list of definitions of this and related concepts gathered from various sources in 2007.)


Amazon logo Ranis, Gustav, and Frances Stewart. "Rural Linkages in the Philippines and Taiwan." In Macro-policies for Appropriate Technology in Developing Countries. Edited by Frances Stewart. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987, pp. 140-191. ISBN: 9780813373034.

Kelegama, Saman, and Fritz Foley. "Impediments to Promoting Backward Linkages from the Garment Industry in Sri Lanka." World Development 27 (1999): 1445-1460.

12 The "newly-discovered" rural economy

Amazon logo Haggblade, Steven, Peter Hazell, and Thomas Reardon. "Research Perspectives and Prospectives on the Rural Nonfarm Economy." Chapter 16, including the table "Common Myths About the Rural Nonfarm Economy (RNFE)." In Transforming the Rural Nonfarm Economy: Opportunities and Threats in the Developing World. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. ISBN: 9780801886645.

Eicher, Carl. "Flashback: Fifty Years of Donor Aid to African Agriculture." In Successes in African Agriculture: Building for the Future. Edited by Steve Haggblade, et al. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)


Biggs, Stephen. "Learning from the Positive to Reduce Rural Poverty: Institutional Innovations in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Development." Paper prepared for the Impact Assessment Workshop organized by the CGIAR Systemwide Program on Participatory Research and Gender Analysis for Technology Development and Institutional Innovation (PRGA) and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), October 19-21, 2005 at CIMMYT Headquarters, Mexico.

———. "The Lost 1990s? Personal Reflections on a History of Participatory Technology Development." Development in Practice 18, no. 4-5 (2008): 489-505.

Amazon logo Spielman, David, and R. Pandya-Lorch. "Millions Fed: Proven Successes in Agricultural Development." International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 2009. Chapter 1: Fifty Years of Progress. ISBN: 9780896296619.

13 Paths to effective (and non-effective) public support

Gotsch, Carl. "Agricultural Mechanization in the Punjab: Some Comparative Observations from India and Pakistan." In Land Tenure and Peasant in South Asia. Edited by Robert Frykenburg. New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1977.

Tendler, Judith. "Tales of Dissemination in Small-farm Agriculture: Lessons for Institution Builders." World Development 21 (October 1994): 1567-1582.


Humphrey, John. "Private Standards, Small Farmers, and Donor Policy: EUREPGAP in Kenya." Working Paper 30. Institute of Development Studies at Sussex (U.K.), July 2008.

Gotsch, Carl. "Technical Change and the Distribution of Income in Rural Areas." American Journal of Agricultural Economics 54 (May 1972): 326-341.

Dugger, Cecilia. "In Africa, Prosperity From Seeds Falls Short." New York Times, October 10, 2007.

Finan, Timothy. "Market Relationships and Market Performance in Northeast Brazil." American Ethnologist 15 (1988): 694-709.

Moss, Daniel. "Why Aren't We Looking at Lessons about Producers-Buyers Relationship and Niche Markets in Non-Export Cases? Farmers and Wholesalers in El Salvador's Central Wholesale Market." Master's Thesis, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2000.

V. Micro, small, and / or medium enterprises

Mead, Donald, and Carl Liedholm. "The Dynamics of Micro and Small Enterprises in Developing Countries." World Development 26 (1998): 61-74.

Amazon logo Fajnzylber, Pablo. "Informality, Productivity, and the Firm." In Informality: Exit and Exclusion. By Guillermo Perry, William Maloney, Omar Arias, Pablo Fajnzylber, Andrew Mason, and Jaime Saavedra-Chanduvi. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2007. ISBN: 9780821370926. Required: pp. 147-164 up to "Cross-country evidence...,"and pp. 174-177; rest optional.


Jenkins, Rhys. "Globalisation and Employment: Working for the Poor?" Insights: Development Research no. 47 (June 2003): 1-2.

Lepenies, Philipp. "Exit, Voice, and Vouchers: Using Vouchers to Train Microentrepreneurs: Observations from the Paraguayan Voucher Scheme." World Development 32, no. 4 (2004): 713-724.

Ananth Pur, Kripa and Mick Moore. "Ambiguous Institutions: Traditional Governance and Local Democracy in Rural India." IDS Working Paper #282. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex, 2007.

Ananth Pur, Kripa. "Rivalry or Synergy? Formal and Informal Local Governance in Rural India." Development and Change 38, no. 3 (2007): 401-421.

15 Small-firms, employment, and political economy

Amazon logo Brown, Charles, James Hamilton, and James Medoff. "Images of Large and Small Employers," "The Economic Backdrop," "Generating New Jobs," "Wages: Bigger Means More," "Who Benefits?" and "A Fuller Picture." In Employers Large and Small. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990. ISBN: 9780674251625. (Chapters 2-5 optional).

Tendler, Judith. "Small Firms, the Informal Sector, and the Devil's Deal." IDS Bulletin (Institute of Development Studies at Sussex) 33 (July 2002). (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Andrews, Edmund. "Where Do the Jobs Come From?" The New York Times, September 21, 2004, Section E, p. 1.


Gibson, Edward. "The Populist Road to Market Reform: Policy and Electoral Coalitions in Mexico and Argentina." World Politics 49 (April 1997): 339-370. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Amazon logo Berger, Suzanne. "The Uses of the Traditional Sector in Italy: Why Declining Classes Survive." In The Petite Bourgeoisie. Edited by Frank Bechafer and Brian Elliot. New York, NY: Saint Martin's Press, 1981, pp. 71-89. ISBN: 9780333350720.

Criscuolo, Alberto. "Artisan Associations and Small Business Development in the 'Third' Italy." Master's Thesis, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2002, pp. 3-4, 9-32, 112-134.

VI. Local economic development, political economy, and public support

Economic development, business associations, and compliance with standards

Guest Researcher: Mansueto F. de Almeida, Jr., Senior Researcher, Institute for Applied Economic and Social Analysis (IPEA), Brazilian Ministry of Planning (and advanced doctoral candidate Department of Urban Studies and Planning/IDG).

Almeida, Mansueto F. de Almeida, Jr. "Beyond Informality: Understanding the Dynamics of Public-Private Partnerships in Cluster Upgrading and Compliance in Brazil." Doctoral Colloquium Paper, MIT, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, 2010.

Schneider, Ben. "Elusive Synergy: Business-Government Relations and Development." Comparative Politics 31 no. 1 (1998): 101-122.


Amazon logo Biddle, Jesse, and Vedat Milor. "Economic Governance in Turkey: Bureaucratic Capacity, Policy Networks, and Business Associations." In Business and the State in Developing Countries. Edited by Sylvia Maxfield and Ben Schneider. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997, pp. 277-310. ISBN: 9780801484063.

Cammett, Melani. "Business-Government Relations and Industrial Change: The Politics of 'Clustering' in Morocco and Tunisia." Political Science Department, Brown University, 2005.

Schrank, Andrew. "Entrepreneurship, Export Diversification, and Economic Reform: The Birth of a 'Developmental Community' in the Dominican Republic." Comparative Politics 38 (2005).


Clusters, value chains, and globalization

Guest Researcher: Salo Coslovsky, Assistant Professor of International Development, New York University, Roberto F. Wagner School of Public Service.

Coslovsky, Salo. "Economic Development Without Pre-requisites: How Bolivian Firms Displaced Brazilian Competitors and Dominated the Global Brazil-Nut Business." New York University, Wagner School, Forthcoming 2010.

Doner, Richard, and Ben Schneider. "Business Associations and Economic Development: Why Some Associations Contribute More than Others." Business and Politics 3 (2000): 261-288. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Cammett, Melani. "Fat Cats and Self-Made Men: Globalization and the Paradoxes of Collective Action." Comparative Politics 37 (July 2005): 379-400.


Humphrey, John, and Hubert Schmitz. "How Does Insertion in Global Value Chains Affect Upgrading in Industrial Clusters?" Regional Studies 36 (2002): 1017-1027.

Schmitz, Hubert, and Bernard Musyck. "Industrial Districts in Europe: Policy Lessons for Developing Countries?" World Development 22 (June 1994): 889-910.

Amazon logo Kaplinsky, Raphael. "Globalisation and Unequalisation: What Can Be Learned from Value Chain Analysis?" In Globalisation and Trade. Edited by Oliver Morrissey and Igor Filatotchev. London, UK: Routledge, 2001. ISBN: 9780714651590.

Amazon logo Schmitz, Hubert. "Globalized Localities: Introduction." In Local Enterprises in the Global Economy: Issues of Governance and Upgrading. Edited by Hubert Schmitz. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2004, pp.1-19. ISBN: 9781845421922.

Nadvi, Khalid, and Gerhard Halder. "Local Clusters in Global Value Chains: Exploring Dynamic Linkages Between Germany and Pakistan." Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 17 (2005): 339-363.

Amazon logo Hudson, R. "Institutional Change, Cultural Transformation, and Economic Regeneration: Myths and Realities from Europe's Old Industrial Areas." In Globalisation, Institutions, and Regional Development in Europe. Edited by Ash Amin and Nigel Thrift. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780198289166.

Loebis, Lienda, and Hubert Schmitz. "Java Furniture Makers: Winners or Losers from Globalisation?" Development and Practice 15 (2005).

Amazon logo Bazan, Luiza, and Lizbeth Navas-Aleman. "The Underground Revolution in the Sinos Valley: A Comparison of Upgrading in Global and National Value Chains." In Local Enterprises in the Global Economy: Issues of Governance and Upgrading. Edited by Hubert Schmitz. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2004, pp. 110-139. ISBN: 9781845421922.

VII. Labor and development

Amazon logo Stiglitz, Joseph. "Democratic Development as the Fruits of Labor," and explanatory preface to the paper. Keynote Address, IRRA (Industrial Relations Research Association), Boston, January 2000. Also available on Stiglitz Web site, and published with the same title in (1) Perspectives on Work 4 (2000): 31-38; and (2) The Rebel Within. Edited by Ha-Joon Chang. London, UK: Wimbledon Publishing Company, 2001, pp. 279-315. ISBN: 9781898855538.

Amazon logo Rodrik, Dani. "Tensions between Trade and Domestic Social Arrangements" and "Implications." In Has Globalization Gone Too Far? Washington, DC: Institute of International Economics, 1997, pp. 29-48 (recommended: pp. 69-85), rest optional. ISBN: 9780881322415.


Amazon logo Jacoby, Sanford. "Risk and the Labor Market: Societal Past as Economic Prologue." In Sourcebook of Labor Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes. Edited by Ivar Berg and Arne Kalleberg. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 2001, pp. 31-60. ISBN: 9780306464539.

Rai, Saritha. "India Hopes for Growth in Textile Exports." The New York Times, July 30, 2004, Section W, p. 1.

Yardley, Jim, and David Barboza. "Help Wanted: China Finds Itself with a Labor Shortage." The New York Times, April 3, 2005.

Bradsher, Keith. "Like Japan in the 1980's, China Poses Big Economic Challenge." The New York Times, March 2, 2004, Section C, p. 1.

Wood, Adrian. "Globalization and the Rise in Labor Market Inequalities." The Economic Journal 108 (1998): 1463-1482.

19 What drives improved labor standards: three cases from India, Brazil, and Italy

Damiani, Octavio. "Effects on Employment, Wages, and Labor Standards of Non-Traditional Export Crops in Northeast Brazil." Latin American Research Review 38 (2003): 83-112.

Amazon logo Tewari, Meenu. "Footloose Capital, Intermediation and the Search for the "High Road" in Low-Wage Industries." In Labour in Global Production Networks in India. Edited by Anne Posthuma and Dev Nathan. New Delhi: Oxford University, 2010. ISBN: 9780198064138.

Amazon logo Locke, Richard. "Industrial Adjustment and Industrial Relations in the Automobile Industry." In Remaking the Italian Economy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997, pp. 103-134. ISBN: 9780801484216.


Guest speakers

Wayne Langley, Director, Division of Higher Education, Service Employees International (SEIU) Local 615

Leslie Cohen, Union organizer, steward, union representative, and negotiator.

Brown, Jeffrey, Stephen G. Dimmock, Jun-Koo Kang, and Scott Weisbenner. "Why I Lost My Secretary: The Effect of Endowment Shocks on University Operations." NBER Working Paper No. 158861. April 2010.

Samuels, Bob. "How America's Universities Became Hedge Funds." The Huffington Post. January 28, 2010.

 "Interview with MIT Workers." SEIU, draft publication, 2010.


Levinson, Jerome. "Worker Rights and the International Financial Institutions." 2010. (Particular attention to Section IV on page 9 to the end.)

Standing, Guy. "The ILO: An Agency for Globalization?" Development and Change 39, no. 3 (2008): 355-384. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Amazon logo Elliott, Kimberly, and Richard Freeman. Can Labor Standards Improve under Globalization? Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2003. ISBN: 9780881323320.


Schrank, Andrew. "Labor Standards and Human Resources: A Natural Experiment in an Unlikely Laboratory." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal, Canada, August 11, 2006.

Piore, Michael. "Rethinking Mexico's Labor Standards in a Global Economy." Department of Economics, MIT, 2004. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader. PDF)

22 Foreign direct investment: Domestic outcomes and dilemmas

Assignment 2 due

Hanson, Gordon. "Should Countries Promote Foreign Direct Investment?" G-24 Discussion Paper Series. UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development), 2001. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Tewari, Meenu. "Adjustments in India’s Textile and Apparel Industry: Reworking Historical Legacies in a Post-MFA World." Environment and Planning A 38, no. 12 (2006): 2325-2344.


Tendler, Judith. "The Economic Wars Between the States." Working Paper Series, MIT/BNB project (Banco do Nordeste – Northeast Brazilian Development Bank), 2000. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

23 Student presentations on the readings  
24 Last day of class. Student presentations on the readings.  


O’Rourke, Dara. "Monitoring the Monitors: A Critique of PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) Labor Monitoring." Department of Urban Studies and Planning, M.I.T. September 28, 2000. pp. 1-15.

— — —. "Multi-stakeholder Regulation: Privatizing or Socializing Global Labor Standards?" World Development 34, no. 5 (2006): 899-918.

Amazon logo Seidman, Gay. "Citizens, Markets, and Transnational Labor Activism", "Labor Rights as Human Rights: Regulation in the Context of a ‘Thinned" National State," "Constructing a Culture of Compliance in Guatemala," "Citizenship at Work"—in chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6 in: Beyond the Boycott: Labor Rights, Human Rights, and Transnational activism. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007. pp. 1-14; 15-46, 102-131, 132-144. Rest optional. ISBN: 9780871547620.

Greenhouse, Steven. "M.I.T. Report Says Global Accounting Firm Overlooks Factory Abuses." The New York Times, September 28, 2000.

— — —. "Nike Shoe Plant in Vietnam is Called Unsafe for Workers." The New York Times, November 8, 1997.

Foster, Lauren and Alexandra Harney. "Why Ethical Sourcing Means Show and Tell." Financial Times, April 22 2005. Comment and Analysis p. 17.

Amazon logo Keesing, Donald B., and Sanjaya Lall. "Marketing Manufactured Exports from Developing Countries: Learning Sequences and Public Support." In Trade Policy, Industrialization, and Development: New Perspectives. Edited by Gerry Helleiner. New York, NY: Routledge, 1994. pp. 176-193. [A Study prepared for the World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER) of the United Nations University.] ISBN: 9780415107112.

Tewari, Meenu. "Varieties of Global Integration: Navigating Institutional Legacies and Global Networks in India’s Garment Industry." Competition & Change 12 (March 2008): 49–67.

Tewari, Meenu, and Poonam Pillai. "Global Standards and Environmental Compliance in the Indian Leather Industry." Oxford Development Studies 33 (June 2004): 246-267.

Amazon logo Helleiner, Gerald. Manufacturing for Exports in the Developing World: Problems and Possibilities. New York, NY: Routledge, 1995. ISBN: 9780415123877.

Amazon logo Wood, Adrian, and Kate Jordan. "Why Does Zimbabwe Export Manufacturers and Uganda Not? Econometrics Meets History." In Globalisation and Trade. Edited by Oliver Morrissey and Igor Filatotchev. New York, NY: Routledge, 2001. pp. 91-116. ISBN: 9780714651590.

Amazon logo Meyer-Stamer, Jörg. "Local Economic Development: What Makes It Difficult, What Makes It Work." Chapter 8 in Asymmetries in Regional Integration and Local Development. Edited by Paolo Giordana, Francesco Lanzafame and Jörg Meyer-Stamer. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank, 2005. pp. 215-250. ISBN: 9781597820042.

Doeringer, Peter B., and David G. Terkla. "Turning Around Local Economies: Managerial Strategies and Community Assets." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 9, no. 4 (1990): 487-506.

Levy, Brian. "Can Intervention Work? The Role of Government in SME Success/Successful Small and Medium Enterprises and their Support Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Four Country Studies." Policy Research Department, Finance and Private Sector Development Division, The World Bank. February 9, 1994.

Perez-Aleman, Paola. "Learning, Adjustment and Economic Development: Transforming Firms, The State, and Associations in Chile." World Development 28, no. 1 (2000): 41-55.

Ortez, Omar. "Manufacturing Firms and Local Jobs: The Influence of Competitive Strategies on Labor in the Garment Sector of San Francisco El Alto, Guatemala." Master’s Thesis, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2001.

Locke, Richard, Matthew Amengual, and Akshay Mangla. "Virtue out of Necessity?: Compliance, Commitment and the Improvement of Labor Conditions in Global Supply Chains." Politics & Society 37, no. 3 (September 2009): 319-351.

Locke, Richard, Fei Quin, and Alberto Brause. "Does Monitoring Improve Labor Standards? Lessons from Nike." Industrial Relations Research Review 61, no. 1 (October 2007): 1-29.

Piore, Michael J. "Labor Standards and Business Strategies." Chapter 2 in Labor Standards and Development in the Global Economy. Edited by Stephen Herzenberg and Jorge F. Perez-Lopez. Washington, D.C., Department of Labor. 1990, pp. 35-45.

Amazon logo Locke, Richard M. "Industrial Adjustment and Industrial Relations in the Automobile Industry." Chapter 4 in Remaking the Italian Economy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995. pp. 103-134. ISBN: 9780801484216.

Beckman, Bjorn. "Trade Unions, Institutional Reform, and Democracy: Nigerian Experiences with South African and Ugandan Comparisons." In Transition: Critical Perspectives on Southern Africa, no. 48. 2002. (A revised version published in Changing continuities: The Local Politics of Democratisation in Developing Countries. Edited by John Harris, Kristian Stokke, and Olle Tornquist. [London: Palgrave, 2004]).

Fung, Archon, Dara O’Rourke, and Charles Sabel. "Realizing Labor Standards." 26, no. 1 (February / March 2001): 4-10.

Sabel, Charles, Dara O'Rourke, and Archon Fung, Archon. "Ratcheting Labor Standards: Regulation for Continuous Improvement in the Global Workplace." (May 2, 2000). KSG Working Paper No. 00-010; Columbia Law and Economic Working Paper No. 185; Columbia Law School, Pub. Law Research Paper No. 01-21.

Murillo, Victoria, and Andrew Schrank. "With a Little Help from my Friends: Partisan Politics, Transnational Alliances, and Labor Rights in Latin America." Comparative Political Studies 38 (October 2005): 971 - 999.

Hilton, Isabel. "Made in China." Granta 89 (Spring 2005): 15-54 (particularly pp. 15-19, 43-47).

Winston, Andrew. "Wal-Mart's new sustainability Mandate in China." Business Week, Harvard Business Online section, October 28, 2008.

Greenhouse, Steven. "Unions Plan Big Drive for Better Pay at Nonunion Wal-mart." The New York Times, December 11, 2004.

Shaiken, Harley. "Going South: Mexican Wages and U.S. Jobs After NAFTA." The American Prospect 15 (Fall 1993): 58-64.

Gonzalez, David, and Samuel Loewenberg. "Banana Workers Get Day in Court." The New York Times, January 18, 2003. Section B. p. 1.

Greenhouse, Steven. "Local 226, ‘The Culinary,’ Makes Las Vegas the Land of the Living Wage." The New York Times, June 3, 2004. Section A, pp. 22 (Late Edition—Final).

———. "Union Takes New Tack in Organizing Effort at Pork-Processing Plant." The New York Times, February 13, 2006. Section A, p.16 (Late Edition – Final).