Lec # Topics readings

Introduction to the Class

State of the World's Water and Sanitation Infrastructure

Problem Identification

"What will it take? Water, Sanitation, and the Millennium Development Goals." Abridged Final Report of the United Nations Millennium Project's Task Force on Water and Sanitation. (PDF - 5.4 MB)

World Health Organization and UNICEF. Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment. Excerpts, 2000.

2 An Introduction to Water Supply and Sanitation Technologies: Guest Speaker: Prof. Susan Murcott  
3 How to Define and Measure Access to Water Supply and Sanitation  
4 Goals of W&S Investment: Human Health and Productivity Gains, the Environment


Buy at Amazon World Bank. "Infrastructure: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities." In World Development Report 1994: Infrastructure for Development. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1994, pp. 13-22. ISBN: 0195209915.

5 The Millennium Development Goals for Water and Sanitation

Visit Millennium Development Goals for some background information on the MDG process.

Note: If you are unfamiliar with international aid agencies like the World Bank, you will also find the following Web sites useful:

The World Bank Group (click on 'About' at the top left corner)

The World Bank and International Monetary Fund (start with the 'Questions and Answers' link)

6 Stakeholder Analysis: Actors in Water and Sanitation Infrastructure Planning and their Objectives

Davis, J. "Corruption in Public Services: Experience from South Asia's Water and Sanitation Sector." World Development 32, no. 1 (2004): 53-71.

James, A., J. Verhagen, C. van Wijk, R. Nanavaty, M. Parikh, and M. Bhatt. "Transforming Time into Money using Water: A Participatory Study of Economics and Gender in Rural India." Natural Resources Forum 26 (2002): 205-217.

7 Institutional Options for W&S Planning and Policy in Developing Countries: Decentralization, Community Management, Privatization, etc.

Davis, J. "Private-sector Participation in Water Supply and Sanitation: A Review of Experience." Forthcoming in Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 2005, Sections 1 and 2.

Buy at Amazon Spiller, W., and P. Savedoff. "Government Opportunism and the Provision of Water." Chapter 1 in Spilled Water: Institutional Commitment in the Provision of Water Services. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, 1999. ISBN: 1886938563.

Pathak, B. "Sanitation is the Key to Healthy Cities." Environment and Urbanization 11, no. 1 (1999): 221-229.

Davis, J. Handout on Economic Principles of W&S Service Delivery.

Parkinson, J., and K. Tayler. "Decentralized Wastewater Management in Peri-Urban Areas in Low-Income Countries." Environment and Urbanization 15, no. 1 (2003): 75-89.


Davis, J., et. al. "Local Government: Kerala, India." Section 4 in Good Governance in the Water and Sanitation Sector: Experience from South Asia. New Delhi, India: Water and Sanitation Program, 2001.

8 The Evolution of W&S Infrastructure Planning in Developing Countries: Supply versus Demand-oriented Approaches

The Dublin Statement

McPhail, A. "The 'Five Percent Rule' for Improved Water Service: Can Households Afford More?" World Development 21, no. 6 (1993): 963-973.

Whittington, D., J. Davis, H. Miarsono, and R. Pollard. "Designing a 'Neighborhood Deal' for Urban Sewers: A Case Study of Semarang, Indonesia." Journal of Planning Education and Research 19 (2000): 297-308.

MacRae, D., et. al. "Assessing Preferences in Cost-Benefit Analysis: Reflections on Rural Water Supply Evaluation in Haiti." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 7, no. 2 (1988): 246-263.

9 Discussion of Policy Memo 1

Recommended for Case Study

Zaroff, Barbara, and Daniel A. Okun. "Water Vending in Developing Countries." Aqua, no. 5 (1984): 289-295.

10 Urban Sanitation Projects with Community Participation: Experiences from Brazil: Guest Speaker: Prof. Earthea Nance, Virginia Tech

Nance, E. "Innovating with Condominial Sewer Technology." Chapter 2 in Putting Participation in Context: An Evaluation of Urban Sanitation in Brazil. Ph. D. Dissertation, Stanford University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2004.

Buy at Amazon Sinnatamby, G. "Low Cost Sanitation." In The Poor Die Young. Edited by S. Cairncross, J. Hardoy, and D. Satterthwaite. London, UK: Earthscan, 1990. ISBN: 1853830194.

11 Providing Water and Sanitation Services to the Poor: Strategies and Obstacles

Crane, R. "Water Markets, Market Reform and the Urban Poor: Results From Jakarta, Indonesia." World Development 22, no. 1 (1994): 71-83.

Davis, J., S. Tankha, A. Ghosh, P. Martin, T. Samad, B. Zia, and G. Prunier. "Ahmedabad: The Slum Networking Program." Section 3 in Good Governance the Water and Sanitation Sector: Experience from South Asia. New Delhi, India: Water and Sanitation Program. (Forthcoming.)

Buy at Amazon Gomez-Lobo, A. "Making Water Affordable: Output-based Consumption Subsidies in Chile." In Contracting for Public Services: Output-based Aid and its Applications. Edited by P. Brooks, and S. Smith. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2001. ISBN: 0821350072.

12 Guest Speaker: Dale Whittington, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill  
13 Community Participation in Water Supply and Sanitation: Alternative Models and Outcomes

Isham, J., et. al. "Does Participation Improve Performance? Establishing Causality with Subjective Data." World Bank Economic Review 9, no. 2 (1995): 175-200.

Jaglin, S. "The Right to Water versus Cost Recovery: Participation, Urban Water Supply and the Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa." Environment and Urbanization 14, no. 1 (2002): 232-245.

Khwaja, A. I. "Can Good Projects Succeed in Bad Communities? Collective Action in Public Good Provision." Unpublished Manuscript, Harvard University, 2002. (Notes: Focus on the 'Intuition' sections in the Presentation of the Econometric Model. Our discussion will largely center on Sections 5 and 6.)

14 Financing and Pricing of Water and Sanitation Services

Boland, J., and D. Whittington. "The Political Economy of Increasing Block Tariffs in Developing Countries." Ottowa: Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia, 2003. (PDF)

UNDP-World Bank Water and Sanitation Program. "Willing to Pay but Unwilling to Charge." Field Note, June 1999. (PDF - 5.2 MB)

DeMoor, Andre. "Stalking the Elusive Subsidy (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)," and "Water, Water Everywhere (PDF)." In Subsidizing Unsustainable Development: Undermining the Earth with Public Funds. San Jose, Costa Rica: Earth Council, 1997. ISBN: 0968184405.

15 Revisiting the Privatization Debate

Davis, J. "Private-sector Participation in Water Supply and Sanitation: A Review of Experience." Forthcoming in Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 2005.

Nickson, A., and C. Vargas. "The Limitations of Water Regulation: The Failure of the Cochabama Concession in Bolivia." Bulletin of Latin American Research 21, no. 1 (2002): 99-120.

Clarke, G., and C. Menard. "Measuring the Welfare Effects of Reform: Urban Water Supply in Guinea." World Development 30, no. 9 (2002): 1517-1537. (Note: Don't worry about the statistical analysis; just focus on the main ideas.)

Mehta, L., and B. Madsen. "The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and Poor People's Right to Water." IDS Bulletin 35, no. 1: 92-102.

16 W&S Planning and the Environment

Buy at Amazon McGranahan, G., and D. Satterthwaite. "Environmental Health or Ecological Sustainability? Reconciling the Brown and Green Agendas in Urban Development." In Planning in Cities: Sustainability and Growth in the Developing World. Edited by R. Zetter, and R. London. London: ITDG, 2002. ISBN: 1853395439.

Esrey, S., et. al. Ecological Sanitation. Stockholm, Sweden: Sida, 1998. ISBN: 9158676120.

17 Discussion of Policy Memo 2

Wrap-up Discussion