This section contains documents created from scanned original files and other
documents that could not be made accessible to screen reader software. A "#"
symbol is used to denote such documents.
Using steps of glycolysis to demonstrate energetics of a multistep pathway. The process involves consuming and generating ATP, pyruvate and NADH. Krebs cycle uses pyruvate from glycolysis and oxygen to make NADH, FADH, and ATP.
Anaerobic and aerobic conditions produce different amounts of energy in terms of ATP.
Storage of energy in chemical bonds with ATP as the energy currency. Example: Coupling glutamate to glutamine reaction and C6H12O6 to lactate reaction.
Definition of oxidation and reduction. Coupled transfer of electrons or hydrogen atoms. Example: NADH to NAD+.
Use glycolysis as an illustration of chemical reactions. Emphasis on the production of ATP as an energy currency.
Classification of organisms based on carbon source, energy source, and electron donor. Name, definition and examples from each class.
The importance of biochemical reactions in life.
Coupled reactions used to run thermodynamically unfavorable reactions. ATP used as an energy storage intermediate.