This section contains documents created from scanned original files and other
documents that could not be made accessible to screen reader software. A "#"
symbol is used to denote such documents.
NADH and FADH are used to pump protons out of the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. Proton gradient results in energy that makes ATP.
Using steps of glycolysis to demonstrate energetics of a multistep pathway. The process involves consuming and generating ATP, pyruvate and NADH. Krebs cycle uses pyruvate from glycolysis and oxygen to make NADH, FADH, and ATP.
Anaerobic and aerobic conditions produce different amounts of energy in terms of ATP.
Study of conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide in wine-making.
Chemical reaction to convert glucose to pyruvate, ATP, and NADH. Detailed enzymatic conversions, names, structures, and energy production shown.
Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted into lactic acid or carbon dioxide and ethanol to recycle NADH from glycolysis.
Broad review of glycolysis and pyruvate conversion under anaerobic conditions.
Citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation with pyruvate as the starting point. Produces many ATP molecules.
Interconvertible forms of energy-chemical bond, concentration gradient, and electrical gradient. Example: Proton gradient across the membrane (concentration gradient energy) can make ATP (chemical bond energy).
During aerobic respiration, NADH and oxygen are converted to water and carbon dioxide. Energetics of the stepwise reactions that create a proton gradient which drives the production of ATP molecules.
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm while oxidative phosphorylation and citric acid cycle occur in the mitochondria. Mitochondrion structure, membrane, proteins/enzymes, and function in respiration.
Conversion of pyruvate and other intermediates of glycolysis into fatty acids for energy storage.
Choice of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Glycolysis needs to occur 18 times faster during aerobic respiration. Yeast regulates rate of glycolysis based on level of ATP/ADP.
Respiration uses organic carbon source to make energy (ATP) and reducing power (NADH); reverse of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. Terminal electron acceptors include: Oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, Fe3+, and Mn3+.
Use glycolysis as an illustration of chemical reactions. Emphasis on the production of ATP as an energy currency.
Steps, intermediates, enzymes, ATP, and NADH involved in glycolysis.
Structures and conversions between ADP and ATP, and between NAD+ and NADH.
Steps in electron transport and ATP synthesis from proton gradient.
Classification of organisms based on carbon source, energy source, and electron donor. Name, definition and examples from each class.
Biochemical reactions involved for autotrophs including: Fermentation and respiration.
Energy diagram and intermediate compounds of all steps of glycolysis. Several steps use ATP as energy source while others harvest and store energy.
Various compounds used as electron donors and acceptors in respiration and chemosynthesis.
Evolution and efficiency of aerobic respiration. Schematic of mitochondria and the electron transport chain.
Carbon and energy sources, and processes that produce carbon and electron sources.
Examples of three types of bacteria characterized based on requirements of light, carbon source, and electron source.
Carbon and electron sources for processes in respiration and photosynthesis. Energy storage in bonds for coupled reactions. Includes good diagrams of chemical reactions in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.
Carbon, electron and energy sources for processes in respiration and photosynthesis.