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Endergonic and exergonic reactions reflect changes in Gibbs free energy (δ G). Enzymes lower activation energy to speed up reaction.
Changes in free energy drive chemical reactions. Gibbs free energy calculated using equilibrium constant under physiological conditions. Examples: Sucrose hydrolysis and deprotonation of acetic acid.
Effect of activation energy on reaction rate, and function of catalysts.
ATP as the energy currency. Energy released when ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP and inorganic phosphate.
Chemical reactions are based on thermodynamics and kinetics. Free energy diagram shows the energy of reaction, and the effect of enzymes on the activation energy.
Definition, calculation, and significance of free energy (delta G) and the equilibrium constant (Keq) in biochemical reactions.
Definitions of oxidation and reduction. Examples and different representations of biological redox reactions. Delta E, delta G, the Nernst Equation and sample calculations.
A list of half reactions (reductions) ordered by E values.
Example involving reaction driven and regulated by ATP, concentration gradient, and change in free energy.
Enzymes, catalytic pockets, and reaction energetics. Contains a figure of all amino acid side chains as well as single letter and triple letter abbreviations.
Free energy, energy storage, spontaneous reactions, and the use of biological catalysts.
Label parts of a basic free energy diagram and how enzymes change the diagram.