Mitochondrial DNA is solely passed along the maternal lineage and the Y chromosome is solely passed along the paternal lineage. Used for the study of genetic diversity due to lack of recombination.
Genetic drift, founder's effect, and bottleneck effect can have dramatic affect on small populations.
Evolutionary trees based on DNA or RNA sequences - mutations and divergence. Sequences that are non-essential contain more variation/neutral mutations.
Changes in physical characteristics that lead to competitive co-existence. Example: Beak depth of species on the same island.
Growth, changes, and immigration of species inhabiting different islands.
Predation as a force of evolution. Prey and predator logistic equations that are dependent on each other's densities, creating an oscillatory system. Example: Snowshoe hare and cats; prey and predator mites.
John Wart's experiment that demonstrated that predation affects community structure within a niche. Predators and prey that drive evolution of both populations. Example: Industrial melanism.