Coupled Reactions

Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle

Using steps of glycolysis to demonstrate energetics of a multistep pathway. The process involves consuming and generating ATP, pyruvate and NADH. Krebs cycle uses pyruvate from glycolysis and oxygen to make NADH, FADH, and ATP.

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Energy Production of Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic and aerobic conditions produce different amounts of energy in terms of ATP.

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Coupled Reactions

Storage of energy in chemical bonds with ATP as the energy currency. Example: Coupling glutamate to glutamine reaction and C6H12O6 to lactate reaction.

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Redox Reaction

Definition of oxidation and reduction. Coupled transfer of electrons or hydrogen atoms. Example: NADH to NAD+.

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Glycolysis–ATP as Energy Currency

Use glycolysis as an illustration of chemical reactions. Emphasis on the production of ATP as an energy currency.

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Classification of Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Classification of organisms based on carbon source, energy source, and electron donor. Name, definition and examples from each class.

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Metabolism and Biosynthesis

The importance of biochemical reactions in life.

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Energy Currency–ATP

Coupled reactions used to run thermodynamically unfavorable reactions. ATP used as an energy storage intermediate.

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