Fermentation & Cellular Respiration

 

Mitochondria Function and Production of ATP

NADH and FADH are used to pump protons out of the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. Proton gradient results in energy that makes ATP.

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Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle

Using steps of glycolysis to demonstrate energetics of a multistep pathway. The process involves consuming and generating ATP, pyruvate and NADH. Krebs cycle uses pyruvate from glycolysis and oxygen to make NADH, FADH, and ATP.

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Energy Production of Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic and aerobic conditions produce different amounts of energy in terms of ATP.

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Fermentation

Study of conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide in wine-making.

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Glycolysis

Chemical reaction to convert glucose to pyruvate, ATP, and NADH. Detailed enzymatic conversions, names, structures, and energy production shown.

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Pyruvate Conversion

Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted into lactic acid or carbon dioxide and ethanol to recycle NADH from glycolysis.

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Glycolysis and Pyruvate Conversion

Broad review of glycolysis and pyruvate conversion under anaerobic conditions.

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Respiration

Citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation with pyruvate as the starting point. Produces many ATP molecules.

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Forms of Energy and Proton Gradient

Interconvertible forms of energy-chemical bond, concentration gradient, and electrical gradient. Example: Proton gradient across the membrane (concentration gradient energy) can make ATP (chemical bond energy).

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Oxidative Phosphorylation

During aerobic respiration, NADH and oxygen are converted to water and carbon dioxide. Energetics of the stepwise reactions that create a proton gradient which drives the production of ATP molecules.

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Citric Acid Cycle and the Mitochondrion

Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm while oxidative phosphorylation and citric acid cycle occur in the mitochondria. Mitochondrion structure, membrane, proteins/enzymes, and function in respiration.

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Fatty Acid Synthesis from Glycolytic Intermediates

Conversion of pyruvate and other intermediates of glycolysis into fatty acids for energy storage.

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Regulation of Glycolysis

Choice of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Glycolysis needs to occur 18 times faster during aerobic respiration. Yeast regulates rate of glycolysis based on level of ATP/ADP.

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Heterotrophs and Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Respiration uses organic carbon source to make energy (ATP) and reducing power (NADH); reverse of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. Terminal electron acceptors include: Oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, Fe3+, and Mn3+.

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Glycolysis–ATP as Energy Currency

Use glycolysis as an illustration of chemical reactions. Emphasis on the production of ATP as an energy currency.

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Glycolysis–Chemcial Reactions

Steps, intermediates, enzymes, ATP, and NADH involved in glycolysis.

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ATP and NADH

Structures and conversions between ADP and ATP, and between NAD+ and NADH.

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Respiration–Chemical Reactions

Steps in electron transport and ATP synthesis from proton gradient.

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Classification of Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Classification of organisms based on carbon source, energy source, and electron donor. Name, definition and examples from each class.

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Autotrophs and Respiration

Biochemical reactions involved for autotrophs including: Fermentation and respiration.

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Glycolysis–Reaction Thermodynamics

Energy diagram and intermediate compounds of all steps of glycolysis. Several steps use ATP as energy source while others harvest and store energy.

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Electron Donors and Acceptors

Various compounds used as electron donors and acceptors in respiration and chemosynthesis.

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Aerobic Respiration and Production of ATP

Evolution and efficiency of aerobic respiration. Schematic of mitochondria and the electron transport chain.

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Carbon and Energy Options

Carbon and energy sources, and processes that produce carbon and electron sources.

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Carbon and Energy Requirements-Bacteria

Examples of three types of bacteria characterized based on requirements of light, carbon source, and electron source.

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Respiration and Photosynthesis–Practice I

Carbon and electron sources for processes in respiration and photosynthesis. Energy storage in bonds for coupled reactions. Includes good diagrams of chemical reactions in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.

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Respiration and Photosynthesis

Carbon, electron and energy sources for processes in respiration and photosynthesis.

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