Mutation

 

Cancer Cells, Mutagens, and Carcinogens

A single abnormal progenitor cell can form a tumor. Compare growth pattern of normal cells in monolayers and cancerous cells in multiple layers.

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Cancer and Mutations

Mutations in the genes that regulate cell cycle and division can cause cancer. Mutations in somatic cells arise spontaneously or from exposure to chemical mutagens.

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Mutagens and Carcinogens

There is a correlation between mutagens that induce mutations and carcinogens that induce tumor formation.

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Genetics–Definitions

Definitions and examples: Mutant, phenotype, conditional phenotype, genotype, diploid, and genes.

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Genetics and Biochemical Pathways

Use of genetic mutants to link mutation to function. Introduce bacterial culture, minimal media, supplemented media, and accumulation of intermediates.

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Mutant Analysis–Complementation Test

Complementation test determines whether two mutations lie within the same gene. Use of temperature sensitive phage mutants. Recessive mutants with mutations in different genes can rescue each other by complementation.

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Mutant Analysis–Recombination Test

Recombination can rescue two single mutants. Recombination frequency can be measured.

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Mutations–Genotype to Phenotype

Examples of genotype and phenotype. Mutations can change the amount or the sequence of the protein. Types of mutations: Nonsense, silent, missense/point, and frameshift.

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Mutants

Definition and importance of mutants in genetic studies.

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Yeast and Genetic Studies

Yeast as a model organism. Techniques and experiments used in the making, identifying, and characterizing yeast mutants. Test of Recessivity, Complementation Test and Epistasis Test.

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Temperature Sensitive Mutants

Brief explanation of the use of temperature sensitive mutants to study essential genes.

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Transcription, Translation, and Mutations

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Products of transcription and translation. DNA mutations that affect the protein product.

Products of transcription and translation. tRNA mutations that affect the protein product. Comparison between bacterial and human genes.

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Mutations and Proteins

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Mutations in stem cells leading to abnormal hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia.

Effect of mutations in the gene and tRNAs on the protein product.

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Mutagenesis

Definition and generation of mutants for genetic studies.

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Mutant Hunt

Steps and requirements to clone a functional gene by growing mutant yeasts in various mediums.

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Binding Pocket Mutations

Effect of different types of mutations on protein binding site.

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Mutant Proteins

Analysis using gel electrophoresis. Mutations leading to changes in side chains that affect the function of the protein.

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