Reproduction/Growth/Development

 

Growth and Differentiation

Development of C. elegans from fertilized egg to all cell types through differentiation. Development involves exponential proliferation and programmed death of cells.

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Stem Cells–Hematopoiesis

Pluripotent and totipotent stem cells can differentiate into different cell types. Example: Hematopoiesis (the blood cell lineage).

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Stem Cells–Self Renewal

Rapid tissue regeneration of the gastrointestinal tract due to continuous differentiation of the stem cells in the crypt.

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Development–Overview

The study of development and its importance in embryos and adults.

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Teratogens

Chemicals that affect development. Example: Thalidomide, alcohol.

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Regeneration and Stem Cells

Study of tissue regeneration in model animals. Regeneration of the liver in humans. The use of stem cells to repair damaged organs.

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Processes in Development

Brief introduction and explanation of processes involved in development including: Cell division, cell death, cell typing, positioning, and 3D structuring.

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Examples of Processes in Development

Cell death is responsible for webbed vs. non-webbed feet. Example: Duck and chicken. Each organ consists of multiple cell types functioning together. Example: Retina. Positions determined on the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and left-right axes. 3D structural arrangement is important to function. Example: Heart.

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Zebrafish Embryonic Development

Brief overview of zebrafish development. Cell division, cell migration and organ development.

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Genes Control Development 1 and II

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All cells contain the same DNA but only a subset of genes are used to encode proteins in each cell type. Different cells make different proteins. Definition: Gene expression, fate.

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Combinations of regulatory genes control cell fate. Each cell type has a unique set of regulatory genes consisting of cell type specific, general, and restricted factors. Regulatory genes make proteins that activate differentiation genes.

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Multiple Steps to Final Fate

Stages to final fate as controlled by regulatory and differentiating genes. Definitions: Uncommitted, committed/determined, differentiated.

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Complexity in Development

Complexity increases with developmental age.

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Regulatory Factors During Development

Regulatory factors act within and between cells. Definition: Determinants, inducers, and morphogens.

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Definitions in Development

Review of definitions for: Fate, potency, commitment, differentiation, and lineage.

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Stem Cells–Definition and Self Renewal

Definition and self-renewing property of stem cells.

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Stem Cells–Tissue Repair

Theory behind the use of stem cells for tissue repair. Embryonic and adult sources of stem cells.

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Stem Cells–Discovery and Examples

Pulse-chase experiment used to determine turnover rates of cells in an organ. Fast turnover and cell division rates led to the discovery of stem cells in certain organs. Organs that contain stem cells include: Testes, blood. Examples of regeneration in lower level organisms.

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Stem Cells–Sample Lineages

Organs that contain stem cells. Example: Testes, blood. Examples of regeneration in lower level organisms.

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Stem Cells–Repopulation/Transplant Assays

Remove some set of differentiated cells and try to replace with transplanted stem cells to determine the potency of the stem cell. Example: Bone marrow transplant in mice.

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Stem Cells–Regulation by Gene Expression

Cell fate is controlled by induction as influenced by surrounding cells. Example: Hair cells.

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Embryonic Stem (ES) Cells

Isolation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from the inner cell mass of an early embryo. Maintain pluripotency in tissue culture and make ES cell lines. Induce differentiation of ES cells by adding regulatory factors. ES cell controversy.

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Differentiation of Skeletal Muscle Cells

Organization and function of skeletal muscles. Example of transcription factors that regulate genes required for muscle formation. Definition: Necessary and sufficient.

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Gene Family

Regulatory factors often belong to families with similar functions. Definition: Redundancy. Gene families can result in alternate pathways. Example: MyoD transcription factor.

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Gene Expression

Expression of myoD solely in the skeletal muscles in many species.

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Fate Mapping

Technique used to determine where a particular cell type arises from during development. Dye injected into cells in the early embryo can be used to follow cell fate through cell division.

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Determination Assay

Explant and implant assays that tests whether a cell has been determined.

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Germ Layers and the Dorsal Mesoderm

Skeletal muscles arise from the dorsal mesoderm. Lineages and organs formed from the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Formation of the dorsal mesoderm controlled by combination of maternally and zygotically expressed genes.

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Final Formation of Skeletal Muscle Cells

Final steps from dorsal mesoderms to skeletal muscle cells.

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Sexual Reproduction and Fertilization

The process of fertilization of the egg and sperm. Two haploid cells fuse to form one diploid cell. Need to go from two completely differentiated cell to a completely undifferentiated cell. Definition: Potency, totipotent.

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Male Reproductive System

Structure of the testis and tubules. Sperm production in various parts of the testis. Structure and regions of the sperm-acrosome for egg penetration, midpiece for energy, and flagellum for movement.

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Female Reproductive System

Oocyte (egg) development in different sites in the ovary. Uterus as the site for embryo development during pregnancy.

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Process of Fertilization

Steps in fertilization including: Species specific recognition, capacitation, sperm penetration of the egg membranes, and the acrosome reaction.

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Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs)

Overview and definition of several ARTs. Review processes and hormones involved in reproduction.

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Stem Cells–Practice I, II and III

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Definition, properties, and potencies of stem cells.

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Characteristics and potencies of stem cells in the hematopoietic lineage and EPO as a regulatory factor for differentiation.

Determine potencies of stem cells based on labeling experiment with viruses.

Potency of stem cells and differentiated cells. Regulation of stem cells.

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Cell Adhesion

Adhesion of two types of cells and factors influencing adhesion.

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Development–Practice

Experiments, cell types, and regulatory factors involved in development.

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Transplant Experiment I and II

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Transplant experiment to test for stage of determination.

Transplantation within a developing embryo at various stages to determine development of different lineages to the final organ.

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Steps in Fertilization

Chemicals and enzymes involved in steps leading to fertilization.

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Controlling Development

Various levels of control for development. Transplant experiment of wildtype cells to mutant embryo to determine whether control is autonomous or non-autonomous.

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Stem Cells–Asymmetrical Division

Asymmetrical division and daughter cells of stem cells. Mutations affecting divisions and cell populations.

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