A single abnormal progenitor cell can form a tumor. Compare growth pattern of normal cells in monolayers and cancerous cells in multiple layers.
Mutations in the genes that regulate cell cycle and division can cause cancer. Mutations in somatic cells arise spontaneously or from exposure to chemical mutagens.
There is a correlation between mutagens that induce mutations and carcinogens that induce tumor formation.
Definitions and examples: Mutant, phenotype, conditional phenotype, genotype, diploid, and genes.
Use of genetic mutants to link mutation to function. Introduce bacterial culture, minimal media, supplemented media, and accumulation of intermediates.
Complementation test determines whether two mutations lie within the same gene. Use of temperature sensitive phage mutants. Recessive mutants with mutations in different genes can rescue each other by complementation.
Recombination can rescue two single mutants. Recombination frequency can be measured.
Examples of genotype and phenotype. Mutations can change the amount or the sequence of the protein. Types of mutations: Nonsense, silent, missense/point, and frameshift.
Definition and importance of mutants in genetic studies.
Yeast as a model organism. Techniques and experiments used in the making, identifying, and characterizing yeast mutants. Test of Recessivity, Complementation Test and Epistasis Test.
Brief explanation of the use of temperature sensitive mutants to study essential genes.
Products of transcription and translation. DNA mutations that affect the protein product.
Products of transcription and translation. tRNA mutations that affect the protein product. Comparison between bacterial and human genes.
Mutations in stem cells leading to abnormal hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia.
Definition and generation of mutants for genetic studies.
Steps and requirements to clone a functional gene by growing mutant yeasts in various mediums.
Effect of different types of mutations on protein binding site.
Analysis using gel electrophoresis. Mutations leading to changes in side chains that affect the function of the protein.