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Development of C. elegans from fertilized egg to all cell types through differentiation. Development involves exponential proliferation and programmed death of cells.
Pluripotent and totipotent stem cells can differentiate into different cell types. Example: Hematopoiesis (the blood cell lineage).
Rapid tissue regeneration of the gastrointestinal tract due to continuous differentiation of the stem cells in the crypt.
The study of development and its importance in embryos and adults.
Chemicals that affect development. Example: Thalidomide, alcohol.
Study of tissue regeneration in model animals. Regeneration of the liver in humans. The use of stem cells to repair damaged organs.
Brief introduction and explanation of processes involved in development including: Cell division, cell death, cell typing, positioning, and 3D structuring.
Cell death is responsible for webbed vs. non-webbed feet. Example: Duck and chicken. Each organ consists of multiple cell types functioning together. Example: Retina. Positions determined on the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and left-right axes. 3D structural arrangement is important to function. Example: Heart.
Brief overview of zebrafish development. Cell division, cell migration and organ development.
All cells contain the same DNA but only a subset of genes are used to encode proteins in each cell type. Different cells make different proteins. Definition: Gene expression, fate.
Stages to final fate as controlled by regulatory and differentiating genes. Definitions: Uncommitted, committed/determined, differentiated.
Combinations of regulatory genes control cell fate. Each cell type has a unique set of regulatory genes consisting of cell type specific, general, and restricted factors. Regulatory genes make proteins that activate differentiation genes.
Complexity increases with developmental age.
Regulatory factors act within and between cells. Definition: Determinants, inducers, and morphogens.
Review of definitions for: Fate, potency, commitment, differentiation, and lineage.
Definition and self-renewing property of stem cells.
Theory behind the use of stem cells for tissue repair. Embryonic and adult sources of stem cells.
Pulse-chase experiment used to determine turnover rates of cells in an organ. Fast turnover and cell division rates led to the discovery of stem cells in certain organs. Organs that contain stem cells include: Testes, blood. Examples of regeneration in lower level organisms.
Organs that contain stem cells. Example: Testes, blood. Examples of regeneration in lower level organisms.
Remove some set of differentiated cells and try to replace with transplanted stem cells to determine the potency of the stem cell. Example: Bone marrow transplant in mice.
Cell fate is controlled by induction as influenced by surrounding cells. Example: Hair cells.
Isolation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from the inner cell mass of an early embryo. Maintain pluripotency in tissue culture and make ES cell lines. Induce differentiation of ES cells by adding regulatory factors. ES cell controversy.
Organization and function of skeletal muscles. Example of transcription factors that regulate genes required for muscle formation. Definition: Necessary and sufficient.
Regulatory factors often belong to families with similar functions. Definition: Redundancy. Gene families can result in alternate pathways. Example: MyoD transcription factor.
Expression of myoD solely in the skeletal muscles in many species.
Technique used to determine where a particular cell type arises from during development. Dye injected into cells in the early embryo can be used to follow cell fate through cell division.
Explant and implant assays that tests whether a cell has been determined.
Skeletal muscles arise from the dorsal mesoderm. Lineages and organs formed from the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Formation of the dorsal mesoderm controlled by combination of maternally and zygotically expressed genes.
Final steps from dorsal mesoderms to skeletal muscle cells.
The process of fertilization of the egg and sperm. Two haploid cells fuse to form one diploid cell. Need to go from two completely differentiated cell to a completely undifferentiated cell. Definition: Potency, totipotent.
Structure of the testis and tubules. Sperm production in various parts of the testis. Structure and regions of the sperm-acrosome for egg penetration, midpiece for energy, and flagellum for movement.
Oocyte (egg) development in different sites in the ovary. Uterus as the site for embryo development during pregnancy.
Steps in fertilization including: Species specific recognition, capacitation, sperm penetration of the egg membranes, and the acrosome reaction.
Overview and definition of several ARTs. Review processes and hormones involved in reproduction.
Definition, properties, and potencies of stem cells.
Adhesion of two types of cells and factors influencing adhesion.
Experiments, cell types, and regulatory factors involved in development.
Transplant experiment to test for stage of determination.
Transplantation within a developing embryo at various stages to determine development of different lineages to the final organ.
Characteristics and potencies of stem cells in the hematopoietic lineage and EPO as a regulatory factor for differentiation.
Determine potencies of stem cells based on labeling experiment with viruses.
Chemicals and enzymes involved in steps leading to fertilization.
Various levels of control for development. Transplant experiment of wildtype cells to mutant embryo to determine whether control is autonomous or non-autonomous.
Potency of stem cells and differentiated cells. Regulation of stem cells.
Asymmetrical division and daughter cells of stem cells. Mutations affecting divisions and cell populations.