MIT OpenCourseWare: New Courses in Mechanical EngineeringNew courses in Mechanical Engineering from MIT OpenCourseWare, provider of free and open MIT course materials.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering
2014-09-05T09:30:47+05:00MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduen-USContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.A35 Biomimetic Principles and Design (MIT)Biomimetics is based on the belief that nature, at least at times, is a good engineer. Biomimesis is the scientific method of learning new principles and processes based on systematic study, observation and experimentation with live animals and organisms. This Freshman Advising Seminar on the topic is a way for freshmen to explore some of MIT's richness and learn more about what they may want to study in later years.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-a35-biomimetic-principles-and-design-fall-2013
Triantafyllou, Michael2014-06-13T16:10:33+05:002.A35en-USbiomimeticsbiomimicrybiomimesisnaturereverse engineeringbionicsadaptationgenetic algorithmspoliticsdesignimitaterobotroboticsrobotunafluid mechanicsfishswimsubmarinecomplexityMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.06 Fluid Dynamics (MIT)This class provides students with an introduction to principal concepts and methods of fluid mechanics. Topics covered in the course include pressure, hydrostatics, and buoyancy; open systems and control volume analysis; mass conservation and momentum conservation for moving fluids; viscous fluid flows, flow through pipes; dimensional analysis; boundary layers, and lift and drag on objects. Students will work to formulate the models necessary to study, analyze, and design fluid systems through the application of these concepts, and to develop the problem-solving skills essential to good engineering practice of fluid mechanics in practical applications.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-06-fluid-dynamics-spring-2013
Varanasi, Kripa2014-05-09T20:44:45+05:002.06en-USfluiddynamicsmechanicsengineeringflowaerodynamicssurfacewavehydrostaticbuoyancyviscousviscosityliftdragphysicsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.086 Numerical Computation for Mechanical Engineers (MIT)This class introduces elementary programming concepts including variable types, data structures, and flow control. After an introduction to linear algebra and probability, it covers numerical methods relevant to mechanical engineering, including approximation (interpolation, least squares and statistical regression), integration, solution of linear and nonlinear equations, ordinary differential equations, and deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Examples are drawn from mechanical engineering disciplines, in particular from robotics, dynamics, and structural analysis.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-086-numerical-computation-for-mechanical-engineers-spring-2013
Patera, Anthony T.2014-03-18T17:37:49+05:002.086en-USMATLABnumerical analysisprogrammingphysical modelingcalculuslinear algebraMonte Carlo Methoddifferential equationsnonlinear systemsvariable typesdata structureflow controlprobabilitystatisticsroboticsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.627 Fundamentals of Photovoltaics (MIT)In this course, students learn about the fundamentals of photoelectric conversion: charge excitation, conduction, separation, and collection. Lectures cover commercial and emerging photovoltaic technologies and cross-cutting themes, including conversion efficiencies, loss mechanisms, characterization, manufacturing, systems, reliability, life-cycle analysis, and risk analysis. Some of the course will also be devoted to discussing photovoltaic technology evolution in the context of markets, policies, society, and environment.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-627-fundamentals-of-photovoltaics-fall-2011
Buonassisi, Tonio2014-03-07T17:06:06+05:002.6272.626en-USphotovoltaicsrenewable energysolarpn-junctionquantum efficiencybandgapthermalizationsemiconductorthin filmscharge excitationconductioncommercializationemerging technologiesconversion efficienciesloss mechanismsmanufacturinglife-cycle analysismarketspolicysocietyenvironmentMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.04A Systems and Controls (MIT)This course provides an introduction to linear systems, transfer functions, and Laplace transforms. It covers stability and feedback, and provides basic design tools for specifications of transient response. It also briefly covers frequency-domain techniques.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-04a-systems-and-controls-spring-2013
Barbastathis, George2014-01-07T16:51:38+05:002.04Aen-USsystemscontrolsordinary differential equationsODEsdifferential equationsLaplacetransfer functionflywheelcircuitsimpedancefeedbackroot locuslinear systemsLaplace transformsstabilityfrequency-domainskyscaperMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.682 Acoustical Oceanography (MIT)This course will begin with brief overview of what important current research topics are in oceanography (physical, geological, and biological) and how acoustics can be used as a tool to address them. Three typical examples are climate, bottom geology, and marine mammal behavior. Will then address the acoustic inverse problem, reviewing inverse methods (linear and nonlinear) and the combination of acoustical methods with other measurements as an integrated system. Last part of course will concentrate on specific case studies, taken from current research journals. This course is taught on campus at MIT and with simultaneous video at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-682-acoustical-oceanography-spring-2012
Lynch, James2013-12-05T17:01:28+05:002.682en-USoceanographyacousticsshallow water acousticsacoustical oceanographyWHOIMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.003SC Engineering Dynamics (MIT)This course is an introduction to the dynamics and vibrations of lumped-parameter models of mechanical systems. Topics covered include kinematics, force-momentum formulation for systems of particles and rigid bodies in planar motion, work-energy concepts, virtual displacements and virtual work. Students will also become familiar with the following topics: Lagrange's equations for systems of particles and rigid bodies in planar motion, and linearization of equations of motion. After this course, students will be able to evaluate free and forced vibration of linear multi-degree of freedom models of mechanical systems and matrix eigenvalue problems.
Content Development
J. Kim Vandiver
David Gossard
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-003sc-engineering-dynamics-fall-2011
Vandiver, J. KimGossard, David2013-09-03T17:47:19+05:002.003SC1.053Jen-USdynamics and vibrationslumped-parameter modelskinematicsmomentumsystems of particles and rigid bodieswork-energy conceptsvirtual displacements and virtual workLagrange's equationsequations of motionlinear stability analysisfree and forced vibrationlinear multi-degree of freedom modelsmatrix eigenvalue problemsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.086 Numerical Computation for Mechanical Engineers (MIT)This class introduces elementary programming concepts including variable types, data structures, and flow control. After an introduction to linear algebra and probability, it covers numerical methods relevant to mechanical engineering, including approximation (interpolation, least squares and statistical regression), integration, solution of linear and nonlinear equations, ordinary differential equations, and deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Examples are drawn from mechanical engineering disciplines, in particular from robotics, dynamics, and structural analysis. Assignments require MATLAB® programming.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-086-numerical-computation-for-mechanical-engineers-fall-2012
Patera, Anthony T.Frey, DanielHadjiconstantinou, Nicholas2013-07-10T16:31:46+05:002.086en-USMATLABnumerical analysisprogrammingphysical modelingcalculuslinear algebraMonte Carlo Methoddifferential equationsnonlinear systemsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.96 Management in Engineering (MIT)This course gives an overview of engineering management and covers topics such as financial principles, management of innovation, technology strategy, and best management practices. The focus of the course is the development of individual skills and team work. This is carried out through an exposure to management tools.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-96-management-in-engineering-fall-2012
Chun, Jung-HoonMarcus, Henry S.Weiss, Abbott2013-06-07T12:27:55+05:002.962.9616.93010.80616.653en-USengineering managementfinancial principlesinnovation in managementtechnology strategymanagement practicesproject planningtechnical strategyMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.S998 Marine Autonomy, Sensing and Communications (MIT)This course covers basic topics in autonomous marine vehicles, focusing mainly on software and algorithms for autonomous decision making (autonomy) by underwater vehicles operating in the ocean environments, autonomously adapting to the environment for improved sensing performance. It will introduce students to underwater acoustic communication environment, as well as the various options for undersea navigation, both crucial to the operation of collaborative undersea networks for environmental sensing. Sensors for acoustic, biological and chemical sensing by underwater vehicles and their integration with the autonomy system for environmentally adaptive undersea mapping and observation will be covered. The subject will have a significant lab component, involving the use of the MOOS-IvP autonomy software infrastructure for developing integrated sensing, modeling and control solutions for a variety of ocean observation problems, using simulation environments and a field testbed with small autonomous surface craft and underwater vehicles operated on the Charles River.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-s998-marine-autonomy-sensing-and-communications-spring-2012
Benjamin, MichaelSchmidt, Henrik2013-02-28T10:19:22+05:002.S998en-USautonomous marine vehiclesocean environmentsunderwater vehiclesacoustic communicationundersea navigationenvironmental sensingacoustical, biological, and chemical sensingmodeling and controlsimulation environmentsprogrammingC++MOOSMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.57 Nano-to-Macro Transport Processes (MIT)Parallel treatments of photons, electrons, phonons, and molecules as energy carriers, aiming at fundamental understanding and descriptive tools for energy and heat transport processes from nanoscale continuously to macroscale. Topics include the energy levels, the statistical behavior and internal energy, energy transport in the forms of waves and particles, scattering and heat generation processes, Boltzmann equation and derivation of classical laws, deviation from classical laws at nanoscale and their appropriate descriptions, with applications in nano- and microtechnology.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-57-nano-to-macro-transport-processes-spring-2012
Chen, Gang2013-01-16T13:32:47+05:002.572.570en-USnanotechnologynanostructureenergyenergy transportenergy storageenergy carriersquantum mechanicsquantum physicsthermoelectricssemiconductor physicssolar cellswaves and particlesMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.29 Numerical Fluid Mechanics (MIT)This course will provide students with an introduction to numerical methods and MATLAB®. Topics covered throughout the course will include: errors, condition numbers and roots of equations; Navier-Stokes; direct and iterative methods for linear systems; finite differences for elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic equations; Fourier decomposition, error analysis, and stability; high-order and compact finite-differences; finite volume methods; time marching methods; Navier-Stokes solvers; grid generation; finite volumes on complex geometries; finite element methods; spectral methods; boundary element and panel methods; turbulent flows; boundary layers; Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Subject includes a final research project.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-29-numerical-fluid-mechanics-fall-2011
Lermusiaux, Pierre2012-09-07T14:00:26+05:002.29en-USerrorscondition numbers and roots of equationsNavier-Stokesdirect and iterative methods for linear systemsfinite differences for ellipticparabolic and hyperbolic equationsFourier decomposition, error analysis, and stabilityhigh-order and compact finite-differencesfinite volume methodstime marching methodsNavier-Stokes solversgrid generationfinite volumes on complex geometriesfinite element methodsspectral methodsboundary element and panel methodsturbulent flowsboundary layersLagrangian Coherent StructuresMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.854 Introduction to Manufacturing Systems (MIT)This course provides students with ways of analyzing manufacturing systems in terms of material flow and storage, information flow, capacities, and times and durations of events. Fundamental topics covered include probability, inventory and queuing models, forecasting, optimization, process analysis, and linear and dynamic systems. This course also covers factory planning and scheduling topics including flow planning, bottleneck characterization, buffer and batch-size tactics, seasonal planning, and dynamic behavior of production systems.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-854-introduction-to-manufacturing-systems-fall-2010
Gershwin, StanleyBoning, Duane2012-01-10T13:51:53+05:002.8542.853en-USmanufacturing systemsmaterial flow and storagestatisticsqueuing modelsproduction systemsflow planningprobabilityMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.71 Optics (MIT)This course provides an introduction to optical science with elementary engineering applications. Topics covered in geometrical optics include: ray-tracing, aberrations, lens design, apertures and stops, radiometry and photometry. Topics covered in wave optics include: basic electrodynamics, polarization, interference, wave-guiding, Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction, image formation, resolution, space-bandwidth product. Analytical and numerical tools used in optical design are emphasized. Graduate students are required to complete assignments with stronger analytical content, and an advanced design project.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-71-optics-spring-2009
Barbastathis, GeorgeSheppard, ColinOh, Se Baek2011-12-22T16:51:39+05:002.712.710en-USoptical scienceelementary engineering applicationsGeometrical opticsray-tracingaberrationslens designaperturesstopsradiometryphotometryWave opticsbasic electrodynamicspolarizationinterferencewave-guidingFresnelFaunhofer diffractionimage formationresolutionspace-bandwidth productoptical designMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.019 Design of Ocean Systems (MIT)This course covers the complete cycle of designing an ocean system using computational design tools for the conceptual and preliminary design stages. Students complete the projects in teams with each student responsible for a specific subsystem. Lectures cover such topics as hydrodynamics; structures; power and thermal aspects of ocean vehicles; environment, materials, and construction for ocean use; and generation and evaluation of design alternatives. The course focuses on innovative design concepts chosen from high-speed ships, submersibles, autonomous vehicles, and floating and submerged deep-water offshore platforms. Lectures on ethics in engineering practice are included, and instruction and practice in oral and written communication is provided.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-019-design-of-ocean-systems-spring-2011
Chryssostomidis, ChryssostomosLiu, Yuming2011-12-15T16:59:29+05:002.019en-USocean environmentseakeepinghydrodynamicsmooring dynamicspropulsion and powerstructural dynamicsmanufacturing and fabricationfloating offshore structuresdesign processgroup dynamicsethics in engineering practiceMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.094 Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Fluids II (MIT)This course presents finite element theory and methods for general linear and nonlinear analyses. Reliable and effective finite element procedures are discussed with their applications to the solution of general problems in solid, structural, and fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid-structure interactions. The governing continuum mechanics equations, conservation laws, virtual work, and variational principles are used to establish effective finite element discretizations and the stability, accuracy, and convergence are discussed. The homework and the student-selected term project using the general-purpose finite element analysis program ADINA are important parts of the course.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-094-finite-element-analysis-of-solids-and-fluids-ii-spring-2011
Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen2011-09-26T14:00:58+05:002.094en-USlinear static analysissolidsstructuresnonlinear static analysisheat transferfluid flowsfinite element methodsADINAstudent workbeamsplatesshellsdisplacementconductionconvectionradiationNavier-Stokesincompressible fluidsacoustic fluidsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.852 Manufacturing Systems Analysis (MIT)This course covers the following topics: models of manufacturing systems, including transfer lines and flexible manufacturing systems; calculation of performance measures, including throughput, in-process inventory, and meeting production commitments; real-time control of scheduling; effects of machine failure, set-ups, and other disruptions on system performance.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-852-manufacturing-systems-analysis-spring-2010
Gershwin, Stanley2011-06-13T16:00:03+05:002.852en-UStransfer linesflexible manufacturing systemsperformance measuresthroughputin-process inventoryreal-time schedulingmachine failurebuffer designoptimizationprobabilityMarkov chainslong linesquality/quantityloopsassembly/disassembly systemsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.092 Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Fluids I (MIT)This course introduces finite element methods for the analysis of solid, structural, fluid, field, and heat transfer problems. Steady-state, transient, and dynamic conditions are considered. Finite element methods and solution procedures for linear and nonlinear analyses are presented using largely physical arguments. The homework and a term project (for graduate students) involve use of the general purpose finite element analysis program ADINA. Applications include finite element analyses, modeling of problems, and interpretation of numerical results.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-092-finite-element-analysis-of-solids-and-fluids-i-fall-2009
Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen2011-01-11T15:01:03+05:002.0922.093en-USfinite element methodssolidsstructuresfluid mechanicsheat transferequilibrium equationsdirect integrationmode superpositioneigensolution techniquesfrequenciesmode shapesstaticsdynamicsnonlinear systemswave propagationMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.017J Design of Electromechanical Robotic Systems (MIT)This course covers the design, construction, and testing of field robotic systems, through team projects with each student responsible for a specific subsystem. Projects focus on electronics, instrumentation, and machine elements. Design for operation in uncertain conditions is a focus point, with ocean waves and marine structures as a central theme. Topics include basic statistics, linear systems, Fourier transforms, random processes, spectra, ethics in engineering practice, and extreme events with applications in design.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-017j-design-of-electromechanical-robotic-systems-fall-2009
Hover, FranzChin, Harrison2010-08-06T06:12:11+05:002.017J1.015Jen-USoptimizationrandom environmentlinear time invariant systemsnavigation systemsengineering ethicsspectraprobability of failurefrequency responseFourier transformconvolutionextreme eventsfeedback controlstatisticsmachine elementsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.997 Direct Solar/Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion Technologies (MIT)
This course introduces principles and technologies for converting heat into electricity via solid-state devices. The first part of the course discusses thermoelectric energy conversion and thermoelectric materials, thermionic energy conversion, and photovoltaics. The second part of the course discusses solar thermal technologies. Various solar heat collection systems will be reviewed, followed by an introduction to the principles of solar thermophotovoltaics and solar thermoelectrics. Spectral control techniques, which are critical for solar thermal systems, will be discussed.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-997-direct-solar-thermal-to-electrical-energy-conversion-technologies-fall-2009
Chen, Gang2010-06-28T14:42:11+05:002.997en-USthermophotovoltaicsthermoelectric devicesselective surfacesnanostructured materialsphotovoltaic cellssemiconductor physicsphononsabsorption spectrumSeebeck effectthermionic enginesphotonic crystalsband gapMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm