MIT OpenCourseWare: New Courses in PhysicsNew courses in Physics from MIT OpenCourseWare, provider of free and open MIT course materials.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics
2015-02-27T15:35:57+05:00MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduen-USContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.333 Statistical Mechanics I: Statistical Mechanics of Particles (MIT)Statistical Mechanics is a probabilistic approach to equilibrium properties of large numbers of degrees of freedom. In this two-semester course, basic principles are examined. Topics include: Thermodynamics, probability theory, kinetic theory, classical statistical mechanics, interacting systems, quantum statistical mechanics, and identical particles.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-333-statistical-mechanics-i-statistical-mechanics-of-particles-fall-2013
Kardar, Mehran2014-12-19T17:14:55+05:008.333en-USthermodynamicsentropymehanicsmicrocanonical distributionscanonical distributionsgrand canonical distributionslattice vibrationsideal gasphoton gasquantum statistical mechanicsFermi systemsBose systemscluster expansionsvan der Waal's gasmean-field theoryMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.334 Statistical Mechanics II: Statistical Physics of Fields (MIT)This is the second term in a two-semester course on statistical mechanics. Basic principles are examined in this class, such as the laws of thermodynamics and the concepts of temperature, work, heat, and entropy. Topics from modern statistical mechanics are also explored, including the hydrodynamic limit and classical field theories.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-334-statistical-mechanics-ii-statistical-physics-of-fields-spring-2014
Kardar, Mehran2014-12-19T17:14:44+05:008.334en-USthe hydrodynamic limit and classical field theoriesPhase transitions and broken symmetries: universalitycorrelation functionsand scaling theoryThe renormalization approach to collective phenomenaDynamic critical behaviorRandom systemsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.422 Atomic and Optical Physics II (MIT)This is the second of a two-semester subject sequence beginning with Atomic and Optical Physics I (8.421) that provides the foundations for contemporary research in selected areas of atomic and optical physics. Topics covered include non-classical states of light–squeezed states; multi-photon processes, Raman scattering; coherence–level crossings, quantum beats, double resonance, superradiance; trapping and cooling-light forces, laser cooling, atom optics, spectroscopy of trapped atoms and ions; atomic interactions–classical collisions, quantum scattering theory, ultracold collisions; and experimental methods.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-422-atomic-and-optical-physics-ii-spring-2013
Ketterle, Wolfgang2014-07-10T06:44:58+05:008.422en-USatomicoptical physicssqueezed statessingle photonCasimir forceoptical Bloch equationsPhoton-atom interactionslight forcesquantum gasesion traps and quantum gatesMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.286 The Early Universe (MIT)The Early Universe provides an introduction to modern cosmology. The first part of the course deals with the classical cosmology, and later part with modern particle physics and its recent impact on cosmology.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-286-the-early-universe-fall-2013
Guth, Alan2014-07-01T15:13:10+05:008.286en-USspecial relativitybig-bang theoryDoppler effectNewtonian cosmological modelsnon-Euclidean spacesthermal radiationearly history of the universegrand unified theoriesparticle theorybaryogenesisinflationary universe modelevolution of galactic structureMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.04 Quantum Physics I (MIT)This course covers the experimental basis of quantum physics. It introduces wave mechanics, SchrÃ¶dinger's equation in a single dimension, and SchrÃ¶dinger's equation in three dimensions.It is the first course in the undergraduate Quantum Physics sequence, followed by 8.05 Quantum Physics II and 8.06 Quantum Physics III.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-04-quantum-physics-i-spring-2013
Adams, AllanEvans, MatthewZwiebach, Barton2014-06-18T14:41:49+05:008.04en-USquantum physics: photoelectric effectCompton scatteringphotonsFranck-Hertz experimentthe Bohr atomelectron diffractiondeBroglie waveswave-particle duality of matter and lightwave mechanics: Schroedinger's equationwave functionswave packetsprobability amplitudesstationary statesthe Heisenberg uncertainty principlezero-point energiestransmission and reflection at a barrierbarrier penetrationpotential wellssimple harmonic oscillatorSchroedinger's equation in three dimensions: central potentials, and introduction to hydrogenic systemsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.05 Quantum Physics II (MIT)Together, this course and 8.06 Quantum Physics III cover quantum physics with applications drawn from modern physics. Topics covered in this course include the general formalism of quantum mechanics, harmonic oscillator, quantum mechanics in three-dimensions, angular momentum, spin, and addition of angular momentum.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-05-quantum-physics-ii-fall-2013
Zwiebach, Barton2014-06-17T16:00:31+05:008.05en-USquantum physicsquantum mechanicsSchrodinger equationDirac's notationHarmonic oscillatorwave functionsangular momentumeigenvalueseigenstatesspherical harmonicsspin systemsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.851 Effective Field Theory (MIT)Effective field theory is a fundamental framework to describe physical systems with quantum field theory. Part I of this course covers common tools used in effective theories. Part II is an in depth study of the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), an effective theory for hard interactions in collider physics.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-851-effective-field-theory-spring-2013
Stewart, Iain2014-01-13T14:27:27+05:008.851en-USQuarksRelativistic Quantum Field TheoryQuantum Chromodynamics (QCD)The QCD LangrangianAsymptotic FreedomDeep Inelastic ScatteringJets, The QCD VacuumInstantonsthe U(1) ProblemLattice Guage TheoryMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.044 Statistical Physics I (MIT)This course offers an introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Numerous examples are used to illustrate a wide variety of physical phenomena such as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radiation, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic devices.This course is an elective subject in MIT’s undergraduate Energy Studies Minor. This Institute-wide program complements the deep expertise obtained in any major with a broad understanding of the interlinked realms of science, technology, and social sciences as they relate to energy and associated environmental challenges.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-044-statistical-physics-i-spring-2013
Greytak, Thomas2014-01-07T16:52:01+05:008.044en-USprobabilitystatistical mechanicsthermodynamicsrandom variablesjoint and conditional probability densitiesfunctions of a random variablemacroscopic variablesthermodynamic equilibriumfundamental assumption of statistical mechanicsmicrocanonical and canonical ensemblesFirst, second, and third laws of thermodynamicsmagnetismpolyatomic gasesthermal radiationelectrons in solidsnoise in electronic devicesMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.07 Electromagnetism II (MIT)This course is the second in a series on Electromagnetism beginning with Electromagnetism I (8.02 or 8.022). It is a survey of basic electromagnetic phenomena: electrostatics; magnetostatics; electromagnetic properties of matter; time-dependent electromagnetic fields; Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic waves; emission, absorption, and scattering of radiation; and relativistic electrodynamics and mechanics.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-07-electromagnetism-ii-fall-2012
Guth, AlanChen, Min2013-12-17T16:46:36+05:008.07en-USelectromagnetic phenomenaelectrostaticsmagnetostaticselectromagnetic fieldselectromagnetic wavesemission of radiationabsorption of radiationscattering of radiationrelativistic electrodynamicsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.592J Statistical Physics in Biology (MIT)Statistical Physics in Biology is a survey of problems at the interface of statistical physics and modern biology. Topics include: bioinformatic methods for extracting information content of DNA; gene finding, sequence comparison, and phylogenetic trees; physical interactions responsible for structure of biopolymers; DNA double helix, secondary structure of RNA, and elements of protein folding; considerations of force, motion, and packaging; protein motors, membranes. We also look at collective behavior of biological elements, cellular networks, neural networks, and evolution.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-592j-statistical-physics-in-biology-spring-2011
Kardar, MehranMirny, Leonid2013-08-13T17:29:30+05:008.592JHST.452Jen-USStatistical physicsBioinformaticsDNAgene findingsequence comparisonphylogenetic treesbiopolymersDNA double helixsecondary structure of RNAprotein foldingprotein motorsmembranescellular networksneural networksevolutionMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.324 Relativistic Quantum Field Theory II (MIT)This course is the second course of the quantum field theory trimester sequence beginning with Relativistic Quantum Field Theory I (8.323) and ending with Relativistic Quantum Field Theory III (8.325). It develops in depth some of the topics discussed in 8.323 and introduces some advanced material.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-324-relativistic-quantum-field-theory-ii-fall-2010
Liu, Hong2011-05-31T15:10:39+05:008.324en-USQuantum Field Theorynonabelian gauge theoriesBRST symmetryPerturbation theory anomaliesRenormalizationsymmetry breakingCritical exponentsscalar field theoryConformal field theoryMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.21 The Physics of Energy (MIT)This course is designed to give you the scientific understanding you need to answer questions like:
How much energy can we really get from wind?
How does a solar photovoltaic work?
What is an OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Converter) and how does it work?
What is the physics behind global warming?
What makes engines efficient?
How does a nuclear reactor work, and what are the realistic hazards?
The course is designed for MIT sophomores, juniors, and seniors who want to understand the fundamental laws and physical processes that govern the sources, extraction, transmission, storage, degradation, and end uses of energy.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-21-the-physics-of-energy-fall-2009
Jaffe, RobertTaylor, Washington2009-12-16T16:41:18+05:008.21en-USenergysolar energywind energynuclear energybiological energy sourcesthermal energyeothermal powerocean thermal energy conversionhydro powerclimate changeenergy storageenergy conservationnuclear radiationsolar photovoltaicOTECnuclear reactorMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.323 Relativistic Quantum Field Theory I (MIT)
8.323, Relativistic Quantum Field Theory I, is a one-term self-contained subject in quantum field theory. Concepts and basic techniques are developed through applications in elementary particle physics, and condensed matter physics.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-323-relativistic-quantum-field-theory-i-spring-2008
Guth, Alan2009-12-14T14:00:59+05:008.323en-USClassical field theorysymmetriesand Noether's theorem. Quantization of scalar fieldsspin fieldsand Gauge bosons. Feynman graphsanalytic properties of amplitudes and unitarity of the S-matrix. Calculations in quantum electrodynamics (QED). Introduction to renormalization.MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.512 Theory of Solids II (MIT)
This is the second term of a theoretical treatment of the physics of solids. Topics covered include linear response theory; the physics of disorder; superconductivity; the local moment and itinerant magnetism; the Kondo problem and Fermi liquid theory.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-512-theory-of-solids-ii-spring-2009
Lee, Patrick2009-09-10T12:22:32+05:008.512en-USLinear response theoryFluctuation dissipation theoremScattering experimentf-sum rulePhysics of disorderKubo formula for conductivityConductance and sensitivity to boundary conditionsScaling theory of localizationMott variable range hoppingSuperconductorTransverse responseLandau diamagnetismMicroscopic derivation of London equationEffect of disorderQuasiparticles and coherence factorsTunneling and Josephson effectMagnetismLocal moment magnetismexchange interactionFerro- and anti-ferro magnet and spin wave theoryBand magnetismStoner theoryspin density waveLocal moment in metalsFriedel sum ruleFriedel-Anderson modelKondo problemFermi liquid theoryElectron Green?s functionLinear response theoryFluctuation dissipation theoremScattering experimentf-sum rulePhysics of disorderKubo formula for conductivityConductance and sensitivity to boundary conditionsScaling theory of localizationMott variable range hoppingSuperconductorTransverse responseLandau diamagnetismMicroscopic derivation of London equationEffect of disorderQuasiparticles and coherence factorsTunneling and Josephson effectMagnetismLocal moment magnetismexchange interactionFerro- and anti-ferro magnet and spin wave theoryBand magnetismStoner theoryspin density waveLocal moment in metalsFriedel sum ruleFriedel-Anderson modelKondo problemFermi liquid theoryElectron Green?s functionMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.012 Physics I: Classical Mechanics (MIT)This class is an introduction to classical mechanics for students who are comfortable with calculus. The main topics are: Vectors, Kinematics, Forces, Motion, Momentum, Energy, Angular Motion, Angular Momentum, Gravity, Planetary Motion, Moving Frames, and the Motion of Rigid Bodies.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-012-physics-i-classical-mechanics-fall-2008
Burgasser, Adam2009-05-12T13:17:05+05:008.012en-USelementary mechanicsNewton's lawsmomentumenergyangular momentumrigid body motionnon-inertialMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.821 String Theory (MIT)
This is a one-semester class about gauge/gravity duality (often called AdS/CFT) and its applications.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-821-string-theory-fall-2008
McGreevy, John2009-05-07T14:18:24+05:008.821en-USstring theoryconformal field theorylight-cone and covariant quantization of the relativistic bosonic stringquantization and spectrum of supersymmetric 10-dimensional string theoriesT-duality and D-branestoroidal compactification and orbifolds11-dimensional supergravity and M-theory.MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.13-14 Experimental Physics I & II "Junior Lab" (MIT)
Junior Lab consists of two undergraduate courses in experimental physics. The courses are offered by the MIT Physics Department, and are usually taken by Juniors (hence the name). Officially, the courses are called Experimental Physics I and II and are numbered 8.13 for the first half, given in the fall semester, and 8.14 for the second half, given in the spring.
The purposes of Junior Lab are to give students hands-on experience with some of the experimental basis of modern physics and, in the process, to deepen their understanding of the relations between experiment and theory, mostly in atomic and nuclear physics. Each term, students choose 5 different experiments from a list of 21 total labs.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-13-14-experimental-physics-i-ii-junior-lab-fall-2007-spring-2008
Faculty, Lecturers, and Technical Staff, Physics DepartmentBecker, Ulrich J.2009-01-21T13:42:26+05:008.13-14en-USJunior Labexperimentalatomicnuclearphysicsopticsphotoelectric effectpoissonstatisticselectromagnetic pulsecompton scatteringFranck-Hertz experimentrelativistic dynamicsnuclear magnetic resonancespin echoescosmic-ray muonsRutherford Scatteringemission spectraneutron physicsJohnson noiseshot noisequantum mechanicsalpha decayradio astrophysicsZeeman effectrubidiumM?ssbauerspectroscopyX-Ray physicssuperconductivityDoppler-freelaserMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.02 Physics II: Electricity and Magnetism (MIT)This freshman-level course is the second semester of introductory physics. The focus is on electricity and magnetism. The subject is taught using the TEAL (Technology Enabled Active Learning) format which utilizes small group interaction and current technology. The TEAL/Studio Project at MIT is a new approach to physics education designed to help students develop much better intuition about, and conceptual models of, physical phenomena. Staff List Visualizations: Prof. John Belcher Instructors: Dr. Peter Dourmashkin Prof. Bruce Knuteson Prof. Gunther Roland Prof. Bolek Wyslouch Dr. Brian Wecht Prof. Eric Katsavounidis Prof. Robert Simcoe Prof. Joseph Formaggio Course Co-Administrators: Dr. Peter Dourmashkin Prof. Robert Redwine Technical Instructors: Andy Neely Matthew Strafuss Course Material: Dr. Peter Dourmashkin Prof. Eric Hudson Dr. Sen-Ben Liao Acknowledgements The TEAL project is supported by The Alex and Brit d'Arbeloff Fund for Excellence in MIT Education, MIT iCampus, the Davis Educational Foundation, the National Science Foundation, the Class of 1960 Endowment for Innovation in Education, the Class of 1951 Fund for Excellence in Education, the Class of 1955 Fund for Excellence in Teaching, and the Helena Foundation. Many people have contributed to the development of the course materials. (PDF)
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-02-physics-ii-electricity-and-magnetism-spring-2007
Faculty, Lecturers, and Technical Staff, Physics Department2008-01-25T00:04:44+05:008.02en-USelectromagnetismelectrostaticselectric chargeCoulomb's lawelectric structure of matterconductorsdielectricselectrostatic fieldpotentialelectrostatic energyElectric currentsmagnetic fieldsAmpere's lawMagnetic materialsTime-varying fieldsFaraday's law of inductionelectric circuitsElectromagnetic wavesMaxwell's equationsMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.231 Physics of Solids I (MIT)
This course offers an introduction to the basic concepts of the quantum theory of solids.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-231-physics-of-solids-i-fall-2006
Wen, Xiao-Gang2007-12-04T17:59:23+05:008.231en-USperiodic structuresymmetry of crystalsdiffractionreciprocal latticechemical bondinglattice dynamicsphononsthermal propertiesfree electron gasmodel of metalsBloch theoremband structurenearly free electron approximationtight binding methodFermi surfacesemiconductorselectronsholesimpuritiesoptical propertiesexcitonsmagnetism.MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.325 Relativistic Quantum Field Theory III (MIT)
This course is the third and last term of the quantum field theory sequence. Its aim is the proper theoretical discussion of the physics of the standard model. Topics include: quantum chromodynamics; the Higgs phenomenon and a description of the standard model; deep-inelastic scattering and structure functions; basics of lattice gauge theory; operator products and effective theories; detailed structure of the standard model; spontaneously broken gauge theory and its quantization; instantons and theta-vacua; topological defects; introduction to supersymmetry.
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-325-relativistic-quantum-field-theory-iii-spring-2007
Stewart, Iain2007-10-11T01:30:15+05:008.325en-USgauge symmetryconfinementrenormalizationasymptotic freedomanomaliesinstantonszero modesgauge boson and Higgs spectrumfermion multipletsCKM matrixunification in SU(5) and SO(10)phenomenology of Higgs sectorlepton and baryon number violationnonperturbative (lattice) formulationMIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm