Chapter 1: Cold War Japan
1. Snow Country (Yukiguni) (1956) and Japan’s Back Coast (Ura Nihon) (1957) are Hamaya’s signature works. They cemented his reputation in the 1950s and represent major contributions to the history of photography in Japan. In addition to these, he had published Observations of China (Mite kita Chūgoku) (1957), Poetry’s Home (Shi no furusato) (1958), and A Children’s Regional Chronicle (Kodomo fudoki) (1959). Hamaya became a contributing photographer to Magnum in 1961. Contributing photographers were defined as “independent photographers who have been close friends of Magnum,” and included Ansel Adams, Philippe Halsman, Dorothea Lange, Russell Lee, Herbert List, and Wayne Miller. (In Our Time: The World as Seen by Magnum Photographers, p. 454.)
2. As laid out in a foundational document of U.S. occupation policy, “U.S. Initial Post-Surrender Policy for Japan (SWNCC150/4/A).”
3. Dower, John. Empire and Aftermath: Yoshida Shigeru and the Japanese Experience, 1878-1951 (Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard, 1979), p. 394.
4. Welfield, John. An Empire in Eclipse: Japan in the Postwar American Alliance System (London: The Athlone Press, 1988), p. 25.
5. Quoted in Dower, “Peace and Democracy in Two Systems,” in Postwar Japan as History, edited by Andrew Gordon (Berkeley: California University Press, 1993), p. 11.
6. September 21, 1952. Reproduced in Shiryō sengo nijūnenshi: shakai (vol. 5) (Documents of Twenty Years of Postwar History: Society), edited by Shimizu Ikutarō, et al (Tokyo: Nihon Hyōronsha, 1966), p. 118.
7. Dower, John. Empire and Aftermath: Yoshida Shigeru and the Japanese Experience, 1878-1951 (Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard, 1979), p. 384.
8. Wada Susumu, “Keizai taikokuka to kokumin ishiki no henbō (Change in Public Opinion amid Japan’s Growing Economic Prowess),” in Kenpō kaisei hihan (Critique of Constitutional Revision), edited by Watanabe Osamu, et al. (Tokyo: Rōdō Junpōsha, 1994), and Tsurumi Shunsuke, “Seishin kakumei no jitsuzō (The realities of the Spiritual Revolution),” in Sengo Nihon senryō to sengo kaikaku: sengo shisō to shakai ishiki (Occupation and Reform in Postwar Japan: Postwar Thought and Social Consciousness), edited by Nakamura Masanori, Amakawa Akira, Yoon Keun Cha, and Igarashi Takashi, 6 vols. (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1995), iii, p. 14. Cited in Mari Yamamoto, Grassroots Pacifism in Post-war Japan: the Rebirth of a Nation (New York: Routledge Curzon, 2004), p. 215.
9. In Mari Yamamoto, Grassroots Pacifism in Post-war Japan, p. 114.
10. Ibid., pp. 115-16.
11. Packard, George R. III. Protest in Tokyo: the Security Treaty Crisis of 1960 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966), p. 261.
12. See Sasaki-Uemura, Wesley. Organizing the Spontaneous: Citizen Protest in Postwar Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2001), pp. 118-126.
13. On student movements in the 1950s, see Hasegawa Kenji, “Waging Cold War in 1950s Japan: Zengakuren’s Postwar Protests,” (Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 2007).
14. Ibid., p. 151.
Chapter 2: The Confrontation
15. Igarashi, Yoshikuni. Bodies of Memory: Narratives of War in Postwar Japanese Culture, 1945-1970 (Princeton University Press, 2000), p. 135.
16. Numbers come from Sasaki-Uemura, Organizing the Spontaneous, p. 16.
17. Oguma, Eiji. Minshu to aikoku: sengo Nihon no nashonarizumu to kōkyōsei (Democracy and Patriotism: Nationalism and Community in Postwar Japan) (Tokyo: Shinyōsha, 2002), p. 515.
18. George R. Packard III, Protest in Tokyo, p. 242.
19. Oguma, p. 509.
20. In Igarashi, p. 136.
21. Tsurumi Shunsuke, quoted in Oguma, p. 512.
Chapter 3: Sites of Protest
22. Koseki, Kazuhiro. “Kenryoku to shihai no tame de wa naku: Hamaya Hiroshi shiron 2” (Not for the Rulers and the Powerful: A Personal View of Hamaya Hiroshi 2) (Tōzai Nanboku 2000), pp. 104-05.
Chapter 4: “Average Citizens”
23. The New York Times editorial is quoted in Sasaki-Uemura, pp. 19-20.
24. Packard, pp. 247-48.
25. Oguma, p. 510.
26. Hamaya, Hiroshi. Senzō zanzō: shashinka no taikenteki kaisō (Latent Image, Afterimage: a Photographer’s Experiential Recollections) (Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha, 1971), pp. 207-209.
Chapter 5: Hope Deferred
27. Sasaki-Uemura, p. 37.
28. According to the statistics of the Metropolitan Police, 815 policemen were injured in the period between June 11 and June 19. Cited in Packard, p. 298.
29. The same photo was also published one year later with a caption identifying the fallen student as Kanba Michiko, on the inside cover of a Zengakuren commemoration of the events of June 15, titled 6.15 / Ware ware no genzai (June 15 / Our Present). The editor of the book recalls never receiving any objections to the attribution, suggesting it was correct. The book’s front cover, incidentally, was designed by the artist Nakamura Hiroshi discussed by Linda Hoaglund. The author would like to thank Michiba Chikanobu for his assistance in researching this photograph.
30. Quoted in Sasaki-Uemura, p. 44.
31. pp. 530-539.
32. Quoted in Oguma, p. 547.
“Tokyo 1960: Days of Rage & Grief” was developed by Visualizing Cultures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and presented on MIT OpenCourseWare.
MIT Visualizing Cultures:
Emeritus Professor of History
Professor of Linguistics
Kochi Prefecture-John Manjiro Professor of Japanese Language and
In collaboration with:
Assistant Professor of Asian Languages and Literature
University of Washington
MIT Visualizing Cultures received generous funding from the Andrew W.
Mellon Foundation, Henry Luce Foundation, the Getty Foundation, Japan Foundation's
Council for Global Partnership, National Endowment for the Humanities, and MIT's
d'Arbeloff Fund for Innovation in Undergraduate Education and MIT Microsoft-funded