Readings

[Erikson] = Erikson, Robert S., and Kent L. Tedin. American Public Opinion: Its Origins, Content, and Impact. 8th ed. Pearson, 2010. ISBN: 9780205745432.

[Ansolabehere] = Ansolabehere, Stephen, and James M. Snyder, Jr. The End of Inequality: One Person, One Vote and the Transformation of American Politics. W. W. Norton & Company, 2008. ISBN: 9780393931037.

[Gilens] = Gilens, Martin. Affluence & Influence: Economic Inequality and Political Power in America. Princeton University Press, 2012. ISBN: 9780691153971. [Preview with Google Books]

SES # TOPICS READINGS
I: Introduction
1 Introduction: what this class is about  
2 & 3 Theoretical conceptions of democratic representation

Madison, James. “The Federalist, No. 10: The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection (continued).” constitution.org.

[Gilens] Chapter 1: “Citizen Competence and Democratic Decision Making.”

Eulau, Heinz, and Paul D. Karps. “The Puzzle of Representation: Specifying Components of Responsiveness.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 2, no. 3 (1977): 233–54.

[Gilens] Chapter 3: “The Preference/Policy Link.” pp. 71–3.

Dahl, Robert A. “What the Framers Couldn’t Know.” Chapter 2 in How Democratic is the American Constitution? 2nd ed. Yale University Press, 2002, pp. 7–20. ISBN: 9780300092189.

II: Public opinion
4 The origins of public opinion: ideology, interests, and partisanship

[Erikson] Chapter 1: “Public Opinion in Democratic Societies.” pp. 1–8.

Friedman, Milton. “Introduction.” In Capitalism and Freedom: Fortieth Anniversary Edition. University of Chicago Press, 1982. ISBN: 9780226264219.

———. “The Relation between Economic Freedom and Political Freedom.” Chapter 1 in Capitalism and Freedom: Fortieth Anniversary Edition. University of Chicago Press, 1982. ISBN: 9780226264219.

———. “The Role of Government in a Free Society.” Chapter 2 in Capitalism and Freedom: Fortieth Anniversary Edition. University of Chicago Press, 1982. ISBN: 9780226264219.

Kuttner, Robert. “The Limits of Markets,” December 19, 2001, prospect.org.

[Erikson] Chapter 3: “Microlevel Opinion: The Psychology of Opinion-Holding.”

Lenz, Gabriel S. “Following, Not Leading.” Chapter 8 in Follow The Leader?: How Voters Respond to Politicians’ Policies and Performance. University of Chicago Press, 2012. ISBN: 9780226472140.

5 The origins of public opinion: analysis of public opinion issues No reading. Come to class prepared to talk about a public opinion issue.
6 Measuring public opinion

[Erikson] Chapter 1: “Public Opinion in Democratic Societies.” pp. 9–18.

[Erikson] Chapter 2: “Polling: The Scientific Assessment of Public Opinion.” pp. 25–50.

[Erikson] Chapter 7: “Group Differences in Political Opinions.” pp. 190–203.

Erikson, Robert S., Gerald C. Wright, and John P. McIver. “Measuring state partisanship and ideology.” Chapter 2 in Statehouse Democracy: Public Opinion and Policy in the American States. Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN: 9780521424059. [Preview with Google Books]

———. “Accounting for state differences in opinion.” Chapter 3 in Statehouse Democracy: Public Opinion and Policy in the American States. Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN: 9780521424059.  [Preview with Google Books]

Brace, Paul, Kellie Sims-Butler, et al. “Public Opinion in the American States: New Perspectives Using National Survey Data.” American Journal of Political Science 46, no. 1 (2002): 173–89.

III. Why would we expect elected officials to care about public opinion?
7a Introduction [Erikson] Chapter 1: “Public Opinion in Democratic Societies.” pp. 19–21.
7b The median voter & electoral accountability

Mayhew, David R. “The Electoral Incentive.” Chapter 1 in Congress: The Electoral Connection. 2nd ed. Yale University Press, 2004, pp. 13–7. ISBN: 9780300105872.

Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Phillip Edward Jones. “Constituents’ Responses to Congressional Roll-Call Voting.” American Journal of Political Science 54, no. 3 (2010): 583–97.

Canes-Wrone, Brandice, David W. Brady, et al. “Out of Step, Out of Office: Electoral Accountability and House Members’ Voting.” American Political Science Review 96, no. 1 (2002): 127–40.

8a Primary constituencies Brady, David W., Hahrie Han, et al. “Primary Elections and Candidate Ideology: Out of Step with the Primary Electorate?Legislative Studies Quarterly 32, no. 1 (2007): 79–105.
8b Elites

[Gilens] Chapter 3: “The Preference/Policy Link.” pp. 77–87.

Reading 1 on Research Design

Johnson, Janet Buttolph, and H.T. Reynolds. “The Building Blocks of Social Scientific Research: Hypotheses, Concepts, and Variables.” In Political Science Research Methods. 6th ed. CQ Press, 2007. ISBN: 9780872894426.

IV. Factors that could lead to undemocratic outcomes
9 Malapportionment

Dahl, Robert A. “The Constitution as a Model: An American Illusion.” Chapter 3 in How Democratic is the American Constitution? 2nd ed. Yale University Press, 2002, pp. 46–54. ISBN: 9780300092189.

[Ansolabehere] Part I: “The Old Order.”

10 Unequal voter turnout

Jacobson, Gary C. “Congressional Voters.” Chapter 5 in The Politics of Congressional Elections. 8th ed. Pearson, 2012, pp. 113–6. ISBN: 9780205251766.

Griffin, John D., and Brian Newman. “Are Voters Better Represented?Journal of Politics 67, no. 4 (2005): 1206–27.

Leighley, Jan E., and Jonathan Nagler. “Who Votes Now? And Does it Matter?” (PDF) Working Paper, 2007.

11a Unequal policy knowledge among voters

Gilens, Martin. “Political Ignorance and Collective Policy Preferences.” American Political Science Review 95, no. 2 (2001): 379–96.

Bartels, Larry M. “Homer Gets a Tax Cut: Inequality and Public Policy in the American Mind.” Perspectives on Politics 3, no. 1 (2005): 15–31.

11b Unequal financial resources

Lessig, Lawrence. “Big Campaign Spending: Government by the 1%,” The Atlantic, July 10, 2012.

Ansolabehere, Stephen, John M. de Figueiredo, et al. “Why is There so Little Money in U.S. Politics?Journal of Economic Perspectives 17, no. 1 (2003): 105–30.

12 Special interests: foundations

Truman, David B. “Groups and Society.” Chapter 2 in The Governmental Process: Political Interests and Public Opinion. Praeger, 1981. ISBN: 9780313229121.

———. “Groups and Government: Introduction.” Chapter 3 in The Governmental Process: Political Interests and Public Opinion. Praeger, 1981. ISBN: 9780313229121.

———. “Group Politics and Representative Democracy.” Chapter 16 in The Governmental Process: Political Interests and Public Opinion. Praeger, 1981. ISBN: 9780313229121.

———. “Introduction to 2E.” In The Governmental Process: Political Interests and Public Opinion. Praeger, 1981. ISBN: 9780313229121.

Schattschneider, E. E. “The Scope and Bias of the Pressure System.” Chapter 2 in The Semisovereign People: A Realist’s View of Democracy in America. Cengage Learning, 1975. ISBN: 9780030133664.

Olson, Mancur. “The Logic of Collective Action.” Chapter 12, Section 62 in The Enduring Debate: Classic & Contemporary Readings in American Politics. 7th ed. Edited by David T. Canon, John J. Coleman, and Kenneth R. Mayer. W. W. Norton & Company, 2013. ISBN: 9780393921588.

13 Special interests: interest groups today

Hall, Richard L., and Alan V. Deardorff. “Lobbying as Legislative Subsidy.” American Political Science Review 100, no. 1 (2006): 69-84.

Kersh, Rogan. “The Well-Informed Lobbyist: Information and Interest Group Lobbying.” Chapter 17 in Interest Group Politics. 7th ed. Edited by Allan J. Cigler and Burdett A. Loomis. CQ Press, 2006. ISBN: 9781933116761.

Kollman, Ken. “Introduction.” Chapter 1 in Outside Lobbying: Public Opinion & Interest Group Strategies. Princeton University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780691017419. [Preview with Google Books]

Currinder, Marian, Joanne Connor Green, and M. Margaret Conway. “Interest Group Money in Elections.” Chapter 8 in Interest Group Politics. 7th ed. Edited by Allan J. Cigler and Burdett A. Loomis. CQ Press, 2006. ISBN: 9781933116761.

[Gilens] Chapter 5: “Interest Groups and Democratic Responsiveness.” pp. 124–40.

14 Incumbency bias

Jacobson, Gary C. “Congressional Candidates.” Chapter 3 in The Politics of Congressional Elections. 8th ed. Pearson, 2012, pp. 27–54. ISBN: 9780205251766.

King, Gary, and Andrew Gelman. “Systemic Consequences of Incumbency Advantage in U.S. House Elections.” American Journal of Political Science 35, no. 1 (1991): 110–38.

Ansolabehere, Stephen, and James M. Snyder, Jr. “The Incumbency Advantage in U.S. Elections: An Analysis of State and Federal Offices, 1942–2000.” Election Law Journal 1, no. 3 (2002): 315–38.

15 Super-majority rules in legislatures

Alberts, Susan, Chris Warshaw, and Barry R. Weingast. “Democratization and Countermajoritarian Institutions: Power and Constitutional Design In Self-Enforcing Democracy.” Chapter 4 in Comparative Constitutional Design: Comparative Constitutional Law and Policy. Edited by Tom Ginsburg. Cambridge University Press. 2012. ISBN: 9781107020566. [Preview with Google Books]

Krehbiel, Keith. “Basics.” Chapter 1 in Pivotal Politics: A Theory of U.S. Lawmaking. University of Chicago Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780226452722. [Preview with Google Books]

———. “A Theory.” Chapter 2 in Pivotal Politics: A Theory of U.S. Lawmaking. University of Chicago Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780226452722. [Preview with Google Books]

———. “Gridlock.” Chapter 3 in Pivotal Politics: A Theory of U.S. Lawmaking. University of Chicago Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780226452722. [Preview with Google Books]

V. Representation of opinions and interests
16 Do policy outcomes represent the views of voters?

[Erikson] Chapter 10: “The Public and Its Elected Leaders.”

[Erikson] Chapter 11: “Public Opinion and the Performance of Democracy.” pp. 322–32.

Erikson, Robert S., Gerald C. Wright, and John P. McIver. “Public opinion and policy in the American states.” Chapter 4 in Statehouse Democracy: Public Opinion and Policy in the American States. Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN: 9780521424059. [Preview with Google Books]

[Gilens] Chapter 3: “The Preference/Policy Link.” pp. 73–7.

Stimson, James A., Michael B. MacKuen, and Robert S. Erikson. “Dynamic Representation.” Chapter 10 in Principles and Practice of American Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings. 4th ed. Edited by Samuel Kernell and Steven S. Smith. CQ Press, 2009, pp. 488–91. ISBN: 9781604264630.

17a Are certain groups systematically over or under-represented in the policy process?: Income & class

Bartels, Larry M. “Economic Inequality and Political Representation.” Chapter 9 in Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age. Princeton University Press, 2010. ISBN: 9780691146232.

[Gilens] Chapter 3: “The Preference/Policy Link.” pp. 88–96.

———. “Policy Consequences of Representational Inequality.” Chapter 9 in Who Gets Represented? Edited by Peter K. Enns and Christopher Wlezien. Russell Sage Foundation, 2011. ISBN: 9780871542427. [Preview with Google Books]

Brunner, Eric, Stephen L. Ross, et al. “Does Less Income Mean Less Representation?"(PDF) NBER Working Paper, 2012.

17b Are certain groups systematically over or under-represented in the policy process?: Interests [Gilens] Chapter 5: “Interest Groups and Democratic Responsiveness.” pp. 140–61.
VI. Institutional reforms to improve representation
18 One-person, one-vote

Cox, Gary W., and Jonathan N. Katz. “Part I: Introduction.” In Elbridge Gerry’s Salamander: The Electoral Consequences of the Reapportionment Revolution. Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780521001540. [Preview with Google Books]

[Ansolabehere] Part III: “Politics Remade.” pp. 187–240.

Reading 2 on Research Design

Johnson, Janet Buttolph, and H. T. Reynolds. “Nonexperimental Designs.” In Political Science Research Methods. 6th ed. CQ Press, 2011. ISBN: 9780872894426.

19 Term limits

Carey, John M. “The electoral disconnection?” Chapter 1 in Term Limits and Legislative Representation. Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780521646017. [Preview with Google Books]

Kousser, Thad. “Introduction.” Chapter 1 in Term Limits and the Dismantling of State Legislative Professionalism. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780521548731. [Preview with Google Books]

———. “The Production of Policy Innovation.” Chapter 7 in Term Limits and the Dismantling of State Legislative Professionalism. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780521548731. [Preview with Google Books]

———. “Term Limits and State Legislatures.” Chapter 8 in Democracy in the States: Experiments in Election Reform. Edited by Bruce E. Cain, Todd Donovan, and Caroline J. Tolbert. Brookings Institution Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780815713371.

20 Direct democracy

Bowler, Shaun, and Todd Donovan. “The Initiative Process.” Chapter 5 in Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis. CQ Press, 2012. ISBN: 9781608719983. [Preview with Google Books]

Gerber, Elisabeth R. “Legislative Response to the Threat of Popular Initiatives.” American Journal of Political Science 40, no. 1 (1996): 99–128.

Lupia, Arthur and John G. Matsusaka. “Direct Democracy: New Approaches to Old Questions.” Annual Review of Political Science 7 (2004): 463–82.

21 Elected judges

Huber, Gregory A., and Sanford C. Gordon. “Accountability and Coercion: Is Justice Blind when It Runs for Office?American Journal of Political Science 48, no. 2 (2004): 247–63.

Cann, Damon M. “Justice for Sale? Campaign Contributions and Judicial Decisionmaking.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 7, no. 3 (2007): 281–97.

Brace, Paul and Brent D. Boyea. “State Public Opinion, the Death Penalty, and the Practice of Electing Judges.” American Journal of Political Science 52, no. 2 (2008): 360–72.

22 Non-partisan redistricting

Cain, Bruce. E. Chapter 9 in The Reapportionment Puzzle. University of California Press, 1984. ISBN: 9780520050280.

Chen, Jowei, and Jonathan Rodden. “Unintentional Gerrymandering: Political Geography and Electoral Bias in Legislatures.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 8, no. 3 (2013): 239–69.

Goedert, Nicholas. “Gerrymandering or Geography? How Democrats Won the Popular Vote but Lost the Congress in 2012.” Working Paper, 2014.

McDonald, Michael P. “Legislative Redistricting.” Chapter 10 in Democracy in the States: Experiments in Election Reform. Edited by Bruce E. Cain, Todd Donovan, and Caroline J. Tolbert. Brookings Institution Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780815713371.

23 Changing the primary process

Gerber, Elisabeth R., and Rebecca B. Morton. “Primary Election Systems and Representation.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 14, no. 2 (1998): 304–24.

Kaufmann, Karen M., James G. Gimpel, et al. “A Promise Fulfilled? Open Primaries and Representation.” Journal of Politics 65, no. 2 (2003): 457–76.

McGee, Eric, Seth Masket, et al. “A Primary Cause of Partisanship? Nomination Systems and Legislator Ideology.” (PDF) Working Paper, 2011.

24 Campaign finance rules

Hogan, Robert E. “The Costs of Representation in State Legislatures: Explaining Variation in Campaign Spending.” Social Science Quarterly 81, no. 4 (2000): 941–56.

[Gilens] Chapter 8: “Money and American Politics.”

Skaggs, Adam, and Fred Wertheimer. “Empowering Small Donors in Elections.” August 22, 2012. brennancenter.org.

Stratmann, Thomas, and Francisco J. Aparicio-Castillo. “Competition policy for elections: Do campaign contribution limits matter?Public Choice 127, no. 1–2 (2006): 177–206.

25 Convenience voting

Gronke, Paul, Eva Galanes-Rosenbaum, et al. “Convenience Voting.” Annual Review of Political Science 11 (2008): 437–55.

Meredith, Marc, and Neil Malhotra. “Convenience Voting Can Affect Election Outcomes.” (PDF)

Springer, Melanie J. “State Electoral Institutions and Voter Turnout In Presidential Elections, 1920–2000.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 12, no. 3 (2012): 252–83.

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