1 00:00:16,967 --> 00:00:25,976 And this gets me now to our last why this matters, 2 00:00:25,976 --> 00:00:28,912 and I'm doing it on the backdrop of this beautiful periodic 3 00:00:28,912 --> 00:00:29,413 table. 4 00:00:31,949 --> 00:00:39,089 So that's a lot of energy, by the way. 5 00:00:39,089 --> 00:00:40,724 First you had to make these iron pipes, 6 00:00:40,724 --> 00:00:45,062 and now you've got to case-harden them 7 00:00:45,062 --> 00:00:47,497 or maybe you've got to put even more iron in. 8 00:00:47,497 --> 00:00:51,568 Look at the other 900 C is really hot. 9 00:00:51,568 --> 00:00:54,972 How much energy do we take to make stuff as simple 10 00:00:54,972 --> 00:00:56,240 as concrete? 11 00:00:59,009 --> 00:01:00,444 It's just liquid stone. 12 00:01:00,444 --> 00:01:02,679 Didn't you just grind some stones down or something 13 00:01:02,679 --> 00:01:05,582 and then pour it out? 14 00:01:05,582 --> 00:01:08,785 Actually, if you think about concrete and other materials 15 00:01:08,785 --> 00:01:15,492 like steel, the use of them is skyrocketing. 16 00:01:15,492 --> 00:01:18,795 This is how much we're making. 17 00:01:18,795 --> 00:01:22,532 So look at this, the millions of tons. 18 00:01:22,532 --> 00:01:23,033 Let's see. 19 00:01:23,033 --> 00:01:25,636 There's steel, and there's cement. 20 00:01:25,636 --> 00:01:26,303 Look at that. 21 00:01:26,303 --> 00:01:28,038 There's the world population right there, 22 00:01:28,038 --> 00:01:34,845 and this runs out in 2009, 2010, '11, but it's continuing. 23 00:01:34,845 --> 00:01:40,717 It's continuing because it's not just that the population is 24 00:01:40,717 --> 00:01:43,620 growing, it's that the places that the population is 25 00:01:43,620 --> 00:01:47,557 growing the most are also industrializing. 26 00:01:47,557 --> 00:01:49,793 And that means building. 27 00:01:49,793 --> 00:01:52,229 You go to some of these places and there's a new building. 28 00:01:52,229 --> 00:01:57,533 Literally every block, there's a new building being built. 29 00:01:57,533 --> 00:02:00,070 That takes this stuff. 30 00:02:00,070 --> 00:02:03,140 That takes a lot of ovens at a lot 31 00:02:03,140 --> 00:02:06,410 of really high temperatures. 32 00:02:06,410 --> 00:02:13,216 Just the cement alone is accounting 33 00:02:13,216 --> 00:02:20,557 for 7% of all CO2 emissions, all CO2 emissions on the planet, 34 00:02:20,557 --> 00:02:26,096 7% of that goes into simply making this magic liquid stone, 35 00:02:26,096 --> 00:02:27,331 this powder. 36 00:02:27,331 --> 00:02:29,966 And at the core of it, what is at the core of it? 37 00:02:29,966 --> 00:02:32,202 It's chemistry. 38 00:02:32,202 --> 00:02:33,003 It's clinker. 39 00:02:33,003 --> 00:02:34,037 It's called the clinker. 40 00:02:34,037 --> 00:02:34,771 What is a clinker? 41 00:02:34,771 --> 00:02:35,805 It's this thing. 42 00:02:35,805 --> 00:02:39,376 It's simply a calcium silicate group. 43 00:02:39,376 --> 00:02:41,878 Making that is what takes all this energy. 44 00:02:41,878 --> 00:02:46,683 It takes half of it at least, making that right. 45 00:02:46,683 --> 00:02:50,287 And as always, the chemistry gives us 46 00:02:50,287 --> 00:02:56,126 the chance to get out of our constrained optimization. 47 00:02:56,126 --> 00:02:59,329 And so you've got to make this mixture of different types 48 00:02:59,329 --> 00:03:00,130 of synthetic rock. 49 00:03:00,130 --> 00:03:02,165 You've got to make mixtures of alite and belite. 50 00:03:02,165 --> 00:03:03,233 They have different names. 51 00:03:05,569 --> 00:03:09,172 And you might be able to make more belite, which 52 00:03:09,172 --> 00:03:10,140 takes less energy. 53 00:03:10,140 --> 00:03:12,542 You can cool your oven down by 300 C 54 00:03:12,542 --> 00:03:15,978 to make belite compared to alite. 55 00:03:15,978 --> 00:03:18,448 But then even though it's structurally OK, 56 00:03:18,448 --> 00:03:21,284 it takes 90 days to dry. 57 00:03:21,284 --> 00:03:22,152 So you can't do that. 58 00:03:22,152 --> 00:03:25,689 So you've got to spend the 300 extra Celsius to make 59 00:03:25,689 --> 00:03:26,823 more alite. 60 00:03:26,823 --> 00:03:30,927 Why It's in the chemistry. 61 00:03:30,927 --> 00:03:32,496 It's in the chemistry. 62 00:03:32,496 --> 00:03:35,932 And understanding, what seems like 63 00:03:35,932 --> 00:03:38,835 not a very interesting-- cement, is it really that interesting? 64 00:03:38,835 --> 00:03:40,937 You bet it is. 65 00:03:40,937 --> 00:03:47,043 7% of all CO2 emissions is just making this one material, 66 00:03:47,043 --> 00:03:49,379 and we're making a lot of it. 67 00:03:49,379 --> 00:03:50,414 We're making a lot of it. 68 00:03:50,414 --> 00:03:53,116 There's a 164 tower in Dubai that 69 00:03:53,116 --> 00:03:57,587 opened in 2010 that took a billion kilograms 70 00:03:57,587 --> 00:03:58,221 of this stuff. 71 00:04:01,591 --> 00:04:04,060 Now, this makes a lot of CO2, and I've talked about CO2 72 00:04:04,060 --> 00:04:05,729 throughout the semester. 73 00:04:05,729 --> 00:04:08,131 And so one thing I wanted to leave you with 74 00:04:08,131 --> 00:04:10,100 was also some things that we're doing about it. 75 00:04:10,100 --> 00:04:12,903 What do we do about CO2? 76 00:04:12,903 --> 00:04:17,007 So how is carbon capture and sequestration going? 77 00:04:17,007 --> 00:04:18,975 Can we take it all out? 78 00:04:18,975 --> 00:04:21,745 We put it in, can we take it out? 79 00:04:21,745 --> 00:04:24,080 And so I'll share a couple of things. 80 00:04:24,080 --> 00:04:28,685 So one of the problems with CO2 capture 81 00:04:28,685 --> 00:04:32,889 is that if you don't do it right where you make it, 82 00:04:32,889 --> 00:04:34,858 then you have to transport it, and it turns out 83 00:04:34,858 --> 00:04:37,861 that's actually really hard to transport CO2. 84 00:04:37,861 --> 00:04:39,262 And there's a lot of problems that 85 00:04:39,262 --> 00:04:40,497 have happened over the years. 86 00:04:40,497 --> 00:04:42,065 In the '80s, there was a leak that 87 00:04:42,065 --> 00:04:44,167 killed thousands of people. 88 00:04:44,167 --> 00:04:47,270 There have been massive leaks in Canada 89 00:04:47,270 --> 00:04:49,506 in transporting this material. 90 00:04:49,506 --> 00:04:52,976 So transporting is actually really hard to do. 91 00:04:52,976 --> 00:04:54,211 There's metal pipe corrosion. 92 00:04:54,211 --> 00:04:58,415 This is a great chemistry problem unsolved. 93 00:04:58,415 --> 00:05:01,785 And then the next part of CO2 sequestration 94 00:05:01,785 --> 00:05:03,820 is one is transporting it that's challenging, 95 00:05:03,820 --> 00:05:05,021 and the other is storing it. 96 00:05:05,021 --> 00:05:06,389 What do you do with it? 97 00:05:06,389 --> 00:05:08,959 Let's suppose we could capture it. 98 00:05:08,959 --> 00:05:10,126 Well, then what? 99 00:05:10,126 --> 00:05:12,762 And there's ideas around this. 100 00:05:12,762 --> 00:05:16,766 So you could pump it maybe underground, geosequestration. 101 00:05:16,766 --> 00:05:19,503 That's not a sure thing. 102 00:05:19,503 --> 00:05:21,671 We don't know, we don't understand 103 00:05:21,671 --> 00:05:24,841 at those scales exactly how well we can in case this material 104 00:05:24,841 --> 00:05:27,644 and how long it lasts, so a lot of questions with that. 105 00:05:27,644 --> 00:05:31,014 There's a whole line of thinking on putting it in the ocean. 106 00:05:33,884 --> 00:05:34,651 Right? 107 00:05:34,651 --> 00:05:36,620 Really? 108 00:05:36,620 --> 00:05:41,424 So you want to fix the CO2 problem by acidifying 109 00:05:41,424 --> 00:05:43,793 the oceans even faster? 110 00:05:43,793 --> 00:05:44,928 OK. 111 00:05:44,928 --> 00:05:47,931 Interesting. 112 00:05:47,931 --> 00:05:51,234 So transport and sequestration is a big problem, 113 00:05:51,234 --> 00:05:54,471 but what about technologies where you simply sequester it 114 00:05:54,471 --> 00:05:58,808 right there where you make it, like clean coal. 115 00:05:58,808 --> 00:06:01,711 You may have heard of clean coal, so clean coal. 116 00:06:01,711 --> 00:06:03,880 So I'm going to look at a case study of a clean coal 117 00:06:03,880 --> 00:06:05,482 project in the US. 118 00:06:05,482 --> 00:06:09,019 In 2005, I got really excited because eight companies joined, 119 00:06:09,019 --> 00:06:11,555 and it was called Future Gen, and the US government was going 120 00:06:11,555 --> 00:06:13,156 to put a lot of money into it. 121 00:06:13,156 --> 00:06:15,325 They were going to capture 90% of the CO2. 122 00:06:15,325 --> 00:06:17,327 You get a little bit less efficiency. 123 00:06:17,327 --> 00:06:18,828 Depending on how you think about it, 124 00:06:18,828 --> 00:06:21,398 it could be 30% less efficiency, I mean, less power 125 00:06:21,398 --> 00:06:24,768 out of the plant, but you sequester the CO2. 126 00:06:24,768 --> 00:06:27,971 And in 2009, construction was planned in Illinois. 127 00:06:27,971 --> 00:06:29,472 In 2010, it was canceled. 128 00:06:29,472 --> 00:06:31,707 In 2010, it was restarted. 129 00:06:31,707 --> 00:06:36,880 In 2012, there was all sorts of discussions with the DOE 130 00:06:36,880 --> 00:06:39,983 that agreed to pay \$1.1 billion. 131 00:06:39,983 --> 00:06:42,519 It was all located, and then the companies dropped out 132 00:06:42,519 --> 00:06:43,787 and the DOE canceled projects. 133 00:06:43,787 --> 00:06:45,188 So that was 10 years. 134 00:06:45,188 --> 00:06:49,159 10 years and \$200 million of taxpayer dollars and absolutely 135 00:06:49,159 --> 00:06:51,328 nothing has come out of it. 136 00:06:51,328 --> 00:06:56,399 So one of the things I want to point out about this direction, 137 00:06:56,399 --> 00:06:58,668 I'm not saying that it's not a good direction 138 00:06:58,668 --> 00:07:01,037 to keep pursuing. 139 00:07:01,037 --> 00:07:03,740 But the timescales are long. 140 00:07:03,740 --> 00:07:06,109 So we need to be able to make decisions that 141 00:07:06,109 --> 00:07:08,044 can cover longer timescales. 142 00:07:08,044 --> 00:07:10,547 That's a huge part of the challenge with this. 143 00:07:10,547 --> 00:07:13,149 It's a policy challenge as much as it is a technical one. 144 00:07:16,152 --> 00:07:20,624 And tying this back to the cement, 145 00:07:20,624 --> 00:07:23,860 there is some really interesting research 146 00:07:23,860 --> 00:07:26,563 that's going on in actually instead of-- 147 00:07:26,563 --> 00:07:27,764 OK, so you've got the CO2. 148 00:07:27,764 --> 00:07:29,733 It comes out when you make it because the ovens 149 00:07:29,733 --> 00:07:32,702 and you're burning stuff, but what if you could take that CO2 150 00:07:32,702 --> 00:07:35,672 and just put it into the thing you're making. 151 00:07:35,672 --> 00:07:37,807 And by the way, if what you're making 152 00:07:37,807 --> 00:07:41,177 is a huge scale like cement, then maybe you 153 00:07:41,177 --> 00:07:43,279 can put a lot of it in, and maybe that 154 00:07:43,279 --> 00:07:45,015 could have a real global impact. 155 00:07:45,015 --> 00:07:49,919 So there's a lot of interest in substantial global carbon 156 00:07:49,919 --> 00:07:51,955 uptake by cement carbonation. 157 00:07:51,955 --> 00:07:53,957 So maybe you could get some of it in the cement. 158 00:07:53,957 --> 00:07:55,125 I like this paper. 159 00:07:55,125 --> 00:07:57,227 I'm pointing it out because they say that they 160 00:07:57,227 --> 00:07:59,629 used Fick's diffusion law. 161 00:07:59,629 --> 00:08:02,198 They modeled the carbon uptake by applying Fick's diffusion 162 00:08:02,198 --> 00:08:02,699 law. 163 00:08:02,699 --> 00:08:03,933 Yeah. 164 00:08:03,933 --> 00:08:04,768 It actually matters. 165 00:08:07,303 --> 00:08:09,339 Right? 166 00:08:09,339 --> 00:08:11,341 You can do this too now. 167 00:08:11,341 --> 00:08:14,844 And just a few weeks ago on CNN, this concrete, yes, 168 00:08:14,844 --> 00:08:16,780 concrete is going high tech. 169 00:08:16,780 --> 00:08:17,447 Why? 170 00:08:17,447 --> 00:08:20,383 Because this company has managed to figure out 171 00:08:20,383 --> 00:08:23,286 how to put a bunch of CO2 into the concrete while 172 00:08:23,286 --> 00:08:26,089 they make it, and it doesn't change the mechanical integrity 173 00:08:26,089 --> 00:08:27,424 of the concrete. 174 00:08:27,424 --> 00:08:28,525 And it's in there. 175 00:08:28,525 --> 00:08:30,527 It's actually in there. 176 00:08:30,527 --> 00:08:32,361 This is all chemistry. 177 00:08:32,361 --> 00:08:33,296 This is all chemistry. 178 00:08:33,296 --> 00:08:36,566 So this is, I think, another very interesting direction 179 00:08:36,566 --> 00:08:39,869 where technology can play a vital role 180 00:08:39,869 --> 00:08:42,772 in this particular global challenge.