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Penicillin Discovery and Mode of Action

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Fleming, A. “On the Antibacterial Action of Cultures of a Penicillium, with Special Reference to Their Use in the Isolation of B. Influenzae.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 2, no. 1 (1980): 129–39.

Chen, Yu, Weilie Zhang, et al. “Crystal Structures of Penicillin-binding Protein 6 from Escherichia Coli.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 131, no. 40 (2009): 14345–54.


Molecular Basis for Penicillin Resistance

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Powell, A. J., J. Tomberg, et al. “Crystal Structures of Penicillin-binding Protein 2 from Penicillin-susceptible and-resistant Strains of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Reveal an Unexpectedly Subtle Mechanism of Antibiotic Resistance.” The Journal of Biological Chemistry 284, no. 2 (2009): 1202–12.

Filipe, S. R., A. Tomasz. “Inhibition of the Expression of Penicillin Resistance in Streptococcus Pneumoniae by Inactivation of Cell Wall Muropeptide Branching Genes.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97, no. 9 (2000): 4891–6.


Vancomycin Discovery and Mode of Action

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Perikins, H. R., and M. Mieto. “The Preparation of Iodinated Vancomycin and its Distribution in Bacteria Treated with the Antibiotic.” Biochemical Journal 116, no. 1 (1970): 83–92.

Knox, J. R., and R. F. Pratt. “Different Modes of Vancomycin and D-alanyl-D-alanine Peptidase Binding to Cell Wall Peptide and a Possible Role for the Vancomycin Resistance Protein.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 34, no. 7 (1990): 1342–7.


Molecular Basis for Vancomycin Resistance

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Bugg, T. D. H., G. D. Wright, et al. “Molecular Basis of Vancomycin Resistance in Enterococcus Faecium BM4147: Biosynthesis of a Depsipeptide Peptidocglycan Precursor by Vancomycin Resistance Proteins VanH and VanA.” Biochemistry 30, no. 43 (1991): 10408–15.

Foucault, M. L., F. Depardieu, et al. “Inducible Expression Eliminates the Fitness Cost of Vancomycin Resistance in Enterococci.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, no. 39 (2010): 16964–9.


Macrolides: Ribosome-binding Antibiotics and Development of Bacterial Resistance

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Tenson, T., M. Lovmar, et al. “The Mechanism of Action of Macrolides, Lincosamides and Streptogramin B Reveals the Nascent Peptide Exit Path in the Ribosome.” Journal of Molecular Biology 330, no. 5 (2003): 1005–14.

Zaman, S., M. Fitzpatrick, et al. “Novel Mutations in Ribosomal Proteins L4 and L22 that Confer Erythromycin Resistance in Escherichia Coli.” Molecular Microbiology 66, no. 4 (2007): 1039–50.


Superbugs: Innate and Acquired Resistance

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Mah, T. F., B. Pitts, et al. “A Genetic Basis for Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Antibiotic Resistance.” Nature 426 (2003): 306–10.

Lin, J., L. Overbye Michel, et al. “CmeABC Functions as a Multidrug Efflux System in Campylobacter Jejuni.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 46, no. 7 (2002): 2124–31.


Field Trip

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Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment

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Czekalski, N., T. Berthold, et al. “Increased Levels of Multiresistant Bacteria and Resistance Genes after Wastewater Treatment and Their Dissemination into Lake Geneva, Switzerland.” Frontiers in Microbiology 3, no. 106 (2012).

UdikovicKolic, N., F. Wichmann, et al. “Bloom of Resident Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria in Soil Following Manure Fertilization.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111, no. 42 (2014): 15202–7.


Mode of Action of Antimicrobial Peptides

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Sychev, S. V., S. V. Balandin, et al. “Lipid-dependent Pore Formation by Antimicrobial Peptides Arenicin-2 and Melittin Demonstrated by their Proton Transfer Activity.” Journal of Peptide Science 21, no. 2 (2014): 71–6.

Deris, Z. Z., J. D. Swarbrick, et al. “Probing the Penetration of Antimicrobial Polymyxin Lipopeptides into Gram-negative Bacteria.” Bioconjugate Chemistry 25, no. 4 (2014): 750–60.


New Methods for Antibiotic Discovery and Delivery

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Ling, L. L., T. Schneider, et al. “A New Antibiotic Kills Pathogens Without Detectable Resistance.” Nature 517 (2015): 455–9.

Radovic-Moreno, A. F., T. K. Lu, et al. “Surface Charge-switching Polymeric Nanoparticles for Bacterial Cell Wall Targeted Delivery of Antibiotics.” ACS Nano 6, no. 5 (2012): 4279–87.


Non-traditional Methods to Treat Bacterial Infection: Fecal Transplants and Viruses

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van Nood, E., A. Vrieze, et al. “Duodenal Infusion of Donor Feces for Recurrent Clostridium Difficile.” The New England Journal of Medicine 368, no. 5 (2013): 407–15.

Yosef, I., M. Manor, et al. “Temperate and Lytic Bacteriophages Programmed to Sensitize and Kill Antibiotic–resistant Bacteria.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, no. 23 (2015): 7267–72.



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