Key References

TOPICS KEY REFERENCES
Decomposing the Wage Distribution

Autor, David H., Lawrence F. Katz, et al. "Rising Wage Inequality: The Role of Composition and Prices." NBER Working Paper No. 11628, 2005.

Barth, Erling, Alex Bryson, et al. "It's Where You Work: Increases in Earnings Dispersion across Establishments and Individuals in the U.S." NBER Working Paper No. 20447, 2014.

Amazon logo Firpo, Sergio, Nicole M. Fortin, and Thomas Lemieux. "Decomposition Methods in Economics." In Handbook of Labor Economics. Vol. 4A. Edited by Orley Ashenfelter and David Card. North Holland, 2010, pp. 1–102. ISBN: 9780444534507. [Preview with Google Books]

Firpo, Sergio, Nicole M. Fortin, et al. "Occupational Tasks and Changes in the Wage Structure." IZA Discussion Paper No. 5542, 2011.

Hakanson, Christina, Erik Lindqvist, et al. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Firms and Skills: The Evolution of Worker Sorting." (PDF) Stockholm School of Economics Working Paper, 2013.

Juhn, Chinhui, Kevin M. Murphy and Brooks Pierce. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill." Journal of Political Economy 101, no. 3 (1993): 410–42.

Kline, Patrick. "Oaxaca-blinder as a Reweighting Estimator." American Economic Review Papers & Proceedings 101, no. 3 (2011): 532–7.

Lemieux, Thomas. "Increased Residual Wage Inequality: Composition Eff ects, Noisy Data, or Rising Demand for Skill?" American Economic Review 96, no. 3 (2006): 461–98.

Inequality—some Facts and Questions

Autor, David H., Lawrence F. Katz, et al. "The Polarization of the U.S. Labor Market." American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 96, no. 2 (2006): 189–94.

———. "Trends in U.S. Wage Inequality: Revising the Revisionists." The Review of Economics and Statistics 90, no. 2 (2008): 300–23.

Bakija, Jon, Adam Cole, et al. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Jobs and Income Growth of Top Earners and the Causes of Changing Income Inequality: Evidence from U.S. Tax Return Data." (PDF) U.S. Department of the Treasury Working Paper, 2012.

Bivens, Josh, Elise Gould, et al. "Raising America's Pay: Why It's Our Central Economic Policy Challenge." Economic Policy Institute Brieng Paper No. 378, 2014.

Corak, Miles. "Income Inequality, Equality of Opportunity, and Intergenerational Mobility." The Journal of Economic Perspectives 27, no. 3 (2013): 79–102.

Dustmann, Christian, Bernd Fitzenberger, et al. "From Sick Man of Europe to Economic Superstar: Germany's Resurgent Economy." The Journal of Economic Perspectives 28, no. 1 (2014): 167–88.

Dustmann, Christian, Johannes Ludsteck, et al. "Revisiting the German Wage Structure." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 124, no. 2 (2009): 843–81.

Amazon logo Ellwood, David. "The Sputtering Labor Force of the Twenty-first Century: Can Social Policy Help?" In The Roaring Nineties: Can Full Employment be Sustained? Edited by Alan B. Krueger and Robert M. Solow. Russell Sage Foundation, 2002. ISBN: 9780871548177. (Also available as NBER Working Paper No. 8321.)

Goldin, Claudia, and Lawrence Katz. "The Origins of Technology-skill Complementarity." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 113, no. 3 (1998): 693–732.

Gottschalk, Peter, and Robert Moffitt. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."The Growth of Earnings Instability in the U.S. Labor Market." (PDF - 4.6MB) Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 25, no. 2 (1994): 217–72.

Amazon logo Hounshell, David A. From the American System to Mass Production, 1800–1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States (Studies in Industry and Society). The John Hopkins University Press, 1984. ISBN: 9780801829758.

Amazon logo Katz, Lawrence F., and David H. Autor. "Changes in the Wage Structure and Earnings Inequality." In Handbook of Labor Economics. Vol. 3A. Edited by Orley Ashenfelter and David Card. North Holland, 1999. ISBN: 9780444501875. [Preview with Google Books]

Kopczuk, Wojciech, Emmanuel Saez, et al. "Earnings Inequality and Mobility in the United States: Evidence from Social Security Data since 1937." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 125, no. 1 (2010): 91–128.

Amazon logo OECD. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2013. ISBN: 9789264203983. [Preview with Google Books]

Canonical Model: Main papers

Acemoglu, Daron, David Autor, et al. "Women, War, and Wages: The Eff ect of Female Labor Supply on the Wage Structure at Midcentury." Journal of Political Economy 112, no. 3 (2004): 497–551.

Beaudry, Paul, David A. Green, et al. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."The Great Reversal in the Demand for Skill and Cognitive Tasks." (PDF) University of British Columbia Working Paper, NBER Working Paper No. 18901, 2013.

Blau, Francine D., and Lawrence M. Kahn. "International Differences in Male Wage Inequality: Institutions versus Market Forces." Journal of Political Economy 104, no. 4 (1996): 791–837.

———. "Do Cognitive Test Scores Explain Higher U.S. Wage Inequality?" The Review of Economics and Statistics 87, no. 1 (2005): 184–93.

Castex, Gonzalo, and Evgenia Dechter. "The Changing Roles of Education and Ability in Wage Determination." Journal of Labor Economics 32, no. 4 (2014): 685–710.

Amazon logo Goldin, Claudia, and Lawrence Katz. The Race between Education and Technology. Belknap Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780674028678. [Preview with Google Books]

Hamermesh, Daniel S. "Changing Inequality in the Markets for Workplace Amenities." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 114, no. 4 (1999): 1085–123.

Lindley, Joanne, and Stephen Machin. "Rising Wage Inequality and Postgraduate Education." IZA Discussion Paper No. 5981, 2011.

Pierce, Brooks. "Compensation Inequality." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 4 (2001): 1493–525.

Amazon logo ———. "Recent Trends in Compensation Inequality." In Labor in the New Economy. Edited by K. Abraham, M. Harper, and J. Spletzer. University of Chicago Press, 2010, pp. 63–98. ISBN: 9780226001432. [Preview with Google Books]

Capital-skill Complementarity

Beaudry, Paul, Mark Doms, et al. "Should the Personal Computer Be Considered a Technological Revolution? Evidence from U.S. Metropolitan Areas." Journal of Political Economy 118, no. 5 (2010): 988–1036.

Machin, Stephen, and John Van Reenen. "Technology and Changes in Skill Structure: Evidence from Seven OECD Countries." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 113, no. 4 (1998): 1215–44.

Michaels, Guy, Ashwini Natraj, et al. "Has ICT Polarized Skill Demand? Evidence from Eleven Countries over 25 Years." The Review of Economics and Statistics 96, no. 1 (2014): 60–77.

Nordhaus, William D. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Two Centuries of Productivity Growth in Computing." (PDF) The Journal of Economic History 67, no. 1 (2001): 128–59.

The Task Framework

Acemoglu, Daron. "Directed Technical Change." Review of Economic Studies 69, no. 4 (2002): 781–809.

Acemoglu, Daron, and David Autor. "What Does Human Capital Do? A Review of Goldin and Katz's The Race between Education and Technology." Journal of Economic Literature 50, no. 2 (2012): 426–63.

Adermon, Adrian, and Magnus Gustavsson. "Job Polarization and Task-biased Technological Change: Evidence from Sweden, 1975–2005." The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 117, no. 3 (2015): 878–917. (Forthcoming)

Autor, David H. "The 'Task Approach' to Labor Markets: An Overview." Journal for Labour Market Research 46, no. 3 (2013): 185–99.

Autor, David, and David Dorn. "The Growth of Low Skill Service Jobs and the Polarization of the U.S. Labor Market." American Economic Review 103, no. 5 (2013): 1553–97.

Coelli, Michael, and Jeff Borland. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Job Polarisation and Earnings Inequality in Australia." (PDF) University of Melbourne Working Paper, 2015.

Goos, Maarten, and Alan Manning. "Lousy and Lovely Jobs: The Rising Polarization of Work in Britain." The Review of Economics and Statistics 89, no. 1 (2007): 118–33.

Heckman, James J., and Jose Scheinkman. "The Importance of Bundling in a Gorman-lancaster Model of Earnings." Review of Economic Studies 54, no. 2 (1987): 243–55.

Amazon logo Katz, Lawrence F., and Robert A. Margo. "Technical Change and the Relative Demand for Skilled Labor: The United States in Historical Perspective." In Human Capital in History: The American Record. Edited by Leah Platt Boustan, Carola Frydman, and Robert A. Margo. University of Chicago Press, 2014, pp. 15–57. [Preview with Google Books]

Lindley, Joanne, and Stephen Machin. "Spatial Changes in Labour Market Inequality." Journal of Urban Economics 79 (2014): 121–38.

The Division of Labor and The Economics of Superstars

Bloom, Nicholas, Erik Brynjolfsson, et al. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Management in America." (PDF) Center for Economic Studies Working Paper No. CES 13–01, 2013.

Bloom, Nicholas, Mirko Draca, et al. "Trade Induced Technical Change? The Impact of Chinese Imports on Innovation, IT, and Productivity." NBER Working Paper No. 16717, 2011.

Bloom, Nick, and John Van Reenen. "Measuring and Explaining Management Practices across Firms and Countries." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 122, no. 4 (2007): 1351–408.

Bloom, Nick, Rafaella Sadun, et al. "Americans do IT Better: U.S. Multinationals and the Productivity Miracle." American Economic Review 102, no. 1 (2012): 167–201.

Bresnahan, Timothy F., Erik Brynolfsson, et al. "Information Technology, Workplace Organization and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-level Evidence." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 117, no. 1 (2002): 339–76.

Gabaix, Xavier, and Augustin Landier. "Why has CEO Pay Increased so Much?" The Quarterly Journal of Economics 123, no. 1 (2008): 49–100.

Garicano, Luis, and Esteban Rossi-hansberg. "Knowledge-based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy." NBER Working Paper No. 20607, 2014.

Lemieux, Thomas, Bentley MacLeod, et al. "Performance Pay and Wage Inequality." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 124, no. 1 (2009): 1–49.

Philippon, Thomas, and Ariell Reshef. "Wages and Human Capital in the U.S. Finance Industry: 1909–2006." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 127, no. 4 (2012): 1551–609.

Amazon logo Taylor, Frederick W. The Principles of Scientific Management. Harper and Brothers, 1911.

Thesmar, David, and Mathias Thoenig. "Creative Destruction and Firm Organizational Choice." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115, no. 4 (2000): 1201–37.

Theory: Main papers and Evidence: Main Papers

Acemoglu, Daron, David Dorn, et al. "Import Competition and the Great U.S. Employment Sag of the 2000s." NBER Working Paper No. 20395, 2014.

Berman, Eli, John Bound, et al. "Implications of Skill-biased Technological Change: International Evidence." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 113, no. 4 (1998): 1245–79.

Blinder, Alan S., and Alan B. Krueger. "Alternative Measures of Offshorability: A Survey Approach." NBER Working Paper No. 15287, 2009.

Costinot, Arnaud. "An Elementary Theory of Comparative Advantage." Econometrica 77, no. 4 (2009): 1165–92.

Dix-Carneiro, Rafael, and Brian K Kovak. "Trade Liberalization and the Skill Premium: A Local Labor Markets Approach." American Economic Review 105, no. 5 (2015): 551–7.

Feenstra, Robert C., and Gordon H. Hanson. "Foreign Direct Investment and Relative Wages: Evidence from Mexico's Maquiladoras." Journal of International Economics 42, no. 3–4 (1997): 371–93.

Hanson, Gordon. "The Rise of Middle Kingdoms: Emerging Economies in Global Trade." The Journal of Economic Perspectives 26, no. 2 (2012): 41–64.

Haskel, Jonathan E., Robert Z. Lawrence, et al. "Globalization and U.S. Wages: Modifying Classic Theory to Explain Recent Facts." The Journal of Economic Perspectives 26, no. 2 (2012): 119–40.

Kovak, Brian K. "Regional Effects of Trade Reform: What is the Correct Measure of Liberalization?" American Economic Review 103, no. 5 (2013): 1960–76.

Lileeva, Alla, and Daniel Trefler. "Improved Access to Foreign Markets Raises Productivity. . . For Some Plants." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 125, no. 3 (2010): 1051–099.

Melitz, Mark, and Daniel Trefler. "Gains from Trade when Firms Matter." The Journal of Economic Perspectives 26, no. 2 (2012): 91–118.

Pierce, Justin R., and Peter K. Schott. "The Surprisingly Swift Decline of U.S. Manufacturing Employment." CESIFO Working Paper No. 4563, 2014.

Topolova, Petia. "Factor Immobility and Regional Impacts of Trade Liberalization: Evidence on Poverty from India." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2, no. 4 (2010): 1–41.

Utar, Hale. "Workers Beneath the Floodgates: The Impact of Removing Trade Quotas for China on Danish Workers." Bielefeld Working Papers in Economics and Management No. 12–2014, 2014.

———. "When the Floodgates Open: 'Northern' Firms' Response to Removal of Trade Quotas on Chinese Goods." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 6, no. 4 (2014): 226–50.

Labor Market Institutions and Wage Structure

Autor, David H., Alan Manning, et al. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."The Contribution of the Minimum Wage to U.S. Wage Inequality over Three Decades: A Reassessment." (PDF - 2.3MB) MIT Working Paper, 2015.

DiNardo, John, and David S. Lee. "Economic Impacts of New Unionization on Private Sector Employers: 1984–2001." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 119, no. 4 (2004): 1383–441.

Frandsen, Brigham R. "Why Unions Still Matter: The Effects of Unionization on the Distribution of Employee Earnings." MIT Working Paper, 2012.

Amazon logo Freeman, Richard R., and James L. Medoff. What do Unions Do? Basic Books, 1984. ISBN: 9780465091331.

Greenwood, Jeremy, and D. Weiss. "Mining Surplus: Modeling James A. Schmitz's Link Between Competition and Productivity." NBER Working Paper No. 19556, 2013.

Kahn, Lawrence. "Wage Inequality, Collective Bargaining, and Relative Employment from 1985 to 1994: Evidence from 15 OECD Countries." The Review of Economics and Statistics 82, no. 4 (2000): 564–79.

Krueger, Alan B., and Alexandre Mas. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Strikes, Scabs, and Tread Separations: Labor Strife and the Production of Defective Bridgestone / Firestone Tires." (PDF) Journal of Political Economy 112, no. 2 (2004): 253–89.

Lee, David. "Wage Inequality in the U.S. During the 1980's: Rising Dispersion or Falling Minimum Wage." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 114, no. 4 (1999): 941–1024.

Mas, Alexandre. "Pay, Reference Points, and Police Performance." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 121, no. 3 (2006): 783–821.

Matsa, David A. "Capital Structure as a Strategic Variable: Evidence from Collective Bargaining." The Journal of Finance 65, no. 3 (2010): 1197–232.

The Emerging Gender Gap in Education and Labor Markets

Autor, David, and Melanie Wasserman. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Wayward Sons: The Emerging Gender Gap in Education and Labor Markets." (PDF - 2MB) Third Way, 2013.

Buchmann, Claudia, and Thomas A. DiPrete. "The Growing Female Advantage in College Completion: The Role of Family Background and Academic Achievement." American Sociological Review 71 (2006): 515–41.

Charles, Kerwin Kofi, and Ming Ching Luoh. "Male Incarceration, the Marriage Market and Female Outcomes." The Review of Economics and Statistics 92, no. 3 (2010): 614–27.

Clampet-Lundquist, Susan, Jeffrey R Kling, et al. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Moving Teenagers out of High-risk Neighborhoods: How Girls Fare Better than Boys." (PDF) American Journal of Sociology 116, no. 4 (2011): 1154–89.

Corak, Miles, Lori Curtis, et al. "Economic Mobility, Family Background, and the Well-being of Children in the United States and Canada." IZA Discussion Paper No. 4814, 2010.

Amazon logo Duncan, Greg J., and Richard J. Murnane, eds. Whither Opportunity?: Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. Russell Sage Foundation, 2011. ISBN: 9780871543721. [Preview with Google Books]

Amazon logo Jacob, Brian L., and Tamara Linkow Wilder. "Educational Expectations and Attainment." In Whither Opportunity?: Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. Edited by Greg J. Duncan and Richard J. Murnane. Russell Sage Foundation, 2011. ISBN: 9780871543721. [Preview with Google Books] (Also available as NBER Working Paper No. 15683.)

Juhn, Chinhui, Kevin M. Murphy, et al. "Current Unemployment, Historically Contemplated." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2002, no. 1 (2002): 79–116.

McLanahan, Sara. "Diverging Destinies: How Children Are Faring under the Second Demographic Transition." Demography 41, no. 4 (2004): 607–27.

Amazon logo Murray, Charles. Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010. Crown Forum, 2012. [Preview with Google Books]

Amazon logo Phillips, Meredith. "Parenting, Time Use, and Disparities in Academic Outcomes." In Whither Opportunity?: Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. Edited by Greg J. Duncan and Richard J. Murnane. Russell Sage Foundation, 2011. ISBN: 9780871543721.

Prevoo, Tyas, and Bas ter Weel. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."The Effect of Family Disruption on Children's Personality Development: Evidence from British Longitudinal Data." (PDF - 1.2MB) IZA Discussion Paper No. 8217, 2014.

Amazon logo Reardon, Sean F. "The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations." In Whither Opportunity?: Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. Edited by Greg J. Duncan and Richard J. Murnane. Russell Sage Foundation, 2011. ISBN: 9780871543721.

Rege, Mari, Kjetil Telle, et al. "Parental Job Loss and Children's School Performance." Review of Economic Studies 78, no. 4 (2011): 1462–89.

Smock, Pamela J., Wendy D. Manning, et al. "'Everything's There Except Money': How Money Shapes Decisions to Marry among Cohabitors." Journal of Marriage and Family 67, no. 3 (2005): 680–96.

The Roy Model: Theory and An Application to Immigration

Abramitzky, Ran, Leah Boustan, et al. "A Nation of Immigrants: Assimilation and Economic Outcomes in the Age of Mass Migration." Journal of Political Economy 122, no. 3 (2014): 467–506.

Borjas, George. "Assimilation, Changes in Cohort Quality, and the Earnings of Immigrants." Journal of Labor Economics 3, no. 4 (1985): 463–89.

Amazon logo Borjas, George. "The Economic Analysis of Immigration." Chapter 28 in Handbook of Labor Economics. Vol. 3, Part 1. Edited by Orley Ashenfelter and David Card. North Holland, 1999, pp. 1697–760. ISBN: 9780444501875. [Preview with Google Books]

Chiswick, Barry. "The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men." Journal of Political Economy 86, no. 5 (1978): 897–921.

Amazon logo French, Eric, and Christopher Taber. "Identification of Models of the Labor Market." Chapter 6 in In Handbook of Labor Economics. Vol. 4A. Edited by Orley Ashenfelter and David Card. North Holland, 2010, pp. 537–617. ISBN: 9780444534507. [Preview with Google Books]

Heckman, James, and Bo Honoré. "The Empirical Content of the Roy Model." Econometrica 58, no. 5 (1990): 1121–49.

Amazon logo Neal, Derek, and Sherwin Rosen. "Theories of the Distribution of Earnings." Chapter 7 in Handbook of Income Distribution. Vol. 1. Edited by Anthony Atkinson and François Bourguignon. North Holland, 2000, pp. 379–427. ISBN: 9780444816313. [Preview with Google Books]

The Roy Model: Additional Applications

Amazon logo Borjas, George. "The Wage Structure and the Sorting of Workers into the Public Sector." Chapter 3 in For the People: Can We Fix Public Service? Edited by John Donahue and Joseph Nye. Brookings Institution Press and Visions of Governance in the 21st Century, 2003, pp. 29–54. ISBN: 9780815718970.

Dahl, Gordon. "Mobility and the Return to Education: Testing a Roy Model with Multiple Markets." Econometrica 70, no. 6 (2002): 2367–420.

Kirkeboen, Lars, Edwin Leuven, et al. "Field of Study, Earnings, and Self-selection." NBER Working Paper No. 20816, 2014.

Rothschild, Casey, and Florian Scheuer. "Redistributive Taxation in the Roy Model." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128, no. 2 (2013): 623–68.

Willis, Robert, and Sherwin Rosen. "Education and Self-selection." Journal of Political Economy 87, no. 5 (1979): S7–36.

Equalizing Wage Differentials: Theory and Empirics

Fishback, Price, and Shawn Kantor. "Did Workers Pay for the Passage of Workers' Compensation Laws?" The Quarterly Journal of Economics 110, no. 3 (1995): 713–42.

Amazon logo Friedman, Milton, and Simon Kuznets. Income from Independent Professional Practice. National Bureau of Economic Research, 1945. ISBN: 9780870140440.

Gruber, Jonathan. "The Incidence of Mandated Maternity Benefits." American Economic Review 84, no. 3 (1994): 622–41.

———. "The Incidence of Payroll Taxation: Evidence from Chile." Journal of Labor Economics 15, no. S3 (1997): S72–101.

Buy at MIT Press Amazon logo Gruber, Jonathan, and Alan Krueger. "The Incidence of Mandated Employer-provided Insurance: Lessons from Workers' Compensation Insurance." In Tax Policy and the Economy. Vol. 5. Edited by David Bradford. MIT Press, 1991, pp. 111–43. ISBN: 9780262521581.

Lucas, Robert. "Hedonic Wage Equations and Psychic Wages in the Returns to Schooling." American Economic Review 67, no. 4 (1977): 549–58.

Amazon logo Murphy, Kevin, and Robert Topel. "Unemployment, Risk, and Earnings: Testing for Equalizing Differences in the Labor Market." Chapter 5 in Unemployment and the Structure of Labor Markets. Edited by Kevin Lang and Jonathan Leonard. Blackwell Publisher, 1987, pp. 103–40. ISBN: 9780814405253.

Rosen, Sherwin. "Hedonic Prices and Implicit Markets: Product Differentiation in Pure Competition." Journal of Political Economy 82, no. 1 (1974): 34–55.

Summers, Lawrence. "Some Simple Economics of Mandated Benefits." American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 79, no. 2 (1989): 177–83.

Applying the Roy Model and Equalizing Wage Differentials: Female Labor Supply

Amazon logo Bertrand, Marianne. "New Perspectives on Gender." Chapter 17 in Handbook of Labor Economics. Vol. 4B. Edited by Orley Ashenfelter and David Card. North Holland, 2010, pp. 1545–92. ISBN: 9780444534521.

Bertrand, Marianne, Claudia Goldin, et al. "Dynamics of the Gender Gap among Young Professionals in the Corporate and Financial Sectors." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2, no. 3 (2010): 228–55.

Amazon logo Goldin, Claudia. Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women. Oxford University Press, 1990. ISBN: 9780195050776.

Applying the Roy Model and Equalizing Wage Differentials: The Scientific Workforce

Freeman, Richard. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Supply and Salary Adjustments to the Changing Science Manpower Market: Physics, 1948–1975." (PDF) American Economic Review 65, no. 1 (1975): 27–39.

———. "A Cobweb Model of the Supply and Starting Salary of New Engineers." Industrial Labor Relations Review 29, no. 2 (1976): 236–48.

Amazon logo Freeman, Richard, Tanwin Chang, and Hanley Chang. "Supporting 'the Best and Brightest' in Science and Engineering: NSF Graduate Research Fellowships." In Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment. Edited by Richard Freeman and Daniel Goroff. University of Chicago Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780226261898. [Preview with Google Books]

Amazon logo Freeman, Richard, and John Van Reenen. "What if Congress Doubled R&D Spending on the Physical Sciences." In Innovation Policy and the Economy. Vol. 9. Edited by Josh Lerner and Scott Stern. University of Chicago Press, 2009, pp. 1–38. ISBN: 9780226400716.

Goosbee, Austan. "Does Government R&D Policy Mainly Benefit Scientists and Engineers?" American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 88, no. 2 (1998): 298–302.

Buy at MIT Press Amazon logo Romer, Paul. "Should the Government Subsidize Supply or Demand in the Market for Scientists and Engineers." In Innovation Policy and the Economy. Vol. 1. Edited by Adam Jaffe, Josh Lerner, and Scott Stern. MIT Press, 2001, pp. 221–52. ISBN: 9780262600415.

Amazon logo Stephan, Paula. How Economics Shapes Science. Harvard University Press, 2012. ISBN: 9780674049710.

Discrimination - Theory, Discrimination - Empirics, and Discrimination and Learning

Amazon logo Altonji, Joseph, and Rebecca Blank. "Race and Gender in the Labor Market." Chapter 48 in Handbook of Labor Economics. Vol. 3C. Edited by Orley Ashenfelter and David Card. North Holland, 1999, pp. 3143–259. ISBN: 9780444501899. [Preview with Google Books]

Anwar, Shamena, Patrick Bayer, et al. "The Impact of Jury Race in Criminal Trials." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 127, no. 2 (2012): 1017–055.

Amazon logo Arrow, Kenneth. "The Theory of Discrimination." In Discrimination in Labor Markets. Edited by Orley Ashenfelter and Albert Rees. Princeton University Press, 1973, pp. 3–33.

Autor, David, and David Scarborough. "Does Job Testing Harm Minority Workers? Evidence from Retail Establishments." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 123, no. 1 (2008): 219–77.

Amazon logo Becker, Gary. The Economics of Discrimination. The University of Chicago Press, 1957.

Bertrand, Marianne, and Sendhil Mullainathan. "Are Emily and Greg more Employable than Latisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination." American Economic Review 94, no. 4 (2004): 991–1013.

Black, Dan. "Discrimination in an Equilibrium Search Model." Journal of Labor Economics 13, no. 2 (1995): 309–34.

Borjas, George, and Stephen Bronars. "Consumer Discrimination and Self-employment." Journal of Political Economy 97, no. 3 (1989): 581–605.

Chandra, Amitabh, and Douglas Staiger. "Identifying Provider Prejudice in Healthcare." NBER Working Paper No. 16832, 2010.

Charles, Kerwin, and Jonathan Guryan. "Prejudice and Wages: An Empirical Assessment of Becker’s The Economics of Discrimination." Journal of Political Economy 116, no. 5 (2008): 773–809.

Chay, Kenneth. "The Impact of Federal Civil Rights Policy on Black Economic Progress: Evidence from the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 51, no. 4 (1998): 608–32.

Fryer, Roland, and Glenn Loury. "Affirmative Action and its Mythology." The Journal of Economic Perspectives 19, no. 3 (2005): 147–62.

Goldberg, Matthew. "Discrimination, Nepotism, and Long-run Wage Differentials." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 97, no. 2 (1982): 307–19.

Goldberger, Arthur. "Reverse Regression and Salary Discrimination." The Journal of Human Resources 19, no. 3 (1984): 293–318.

Heckman, James, and Brook Payner. "Determining the Impact of Federal Antidiscrimination Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks: A Case Study of South Carolina." American Economic Review 79, no. 1 (1989): 138–77.

Holzer, Harry, and David Neumark. "Assessing Affirmative Action." Journal of Economic Literature 38, no. 3 (2000): 483–568.

Lang, Kevin, Michael Manove, et al. "Racial Discrimination in Labor Markets With Posted Wage Offers." American Economic Review 95, no. 4 (2005): 1327–40.

Leonard, Jonathan. "The Impact of Affirmative Action on Employment." Journal of Labor Economics 2, no. 4 (1984): 439–63.

List, John. "The Nature and Extent of Discrimination in the Marketplace: Evidence from the Field." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 119, no. 1 (2004): 49–89.

Lundberg, Shelly, and Richard Startz. "Private Discrimination and Social Intervention in Competitive Labor Markets." American Economic Review 73, no. 3 (1983): 340–7.

McCrary, Justin. "The Effect of Court-ordered Hiring Quotas on the Composition and Quality of Policy." American Economic Review 97, no. 1 (2007): 318–53.

Neal, Derek. "The Measured Black-white Wage Gap Among Women is too Small." Journal of Political Economy 112, no. S1 (2004): S1–28.

Riach, Peter, and Judith Rich. "Field Experiments of Discrimination in the Market Place." The Economic Journal 112, no. 483 (2002): F480–518.

Rent-sharing

Abowd, John, and Thomas Lemieux. "The Effects of Product Market Competition on Collective Bargaining Agreements: The Case of Foreign Competition in Canada." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108, no. 4 (1993): 983–1014.

Black, Sandra, and Philip Strahan. "The Division of the Spoils: Rent-sharing and Discrimintation in a Regulated Industry." American Economic Review 91, no. 4 (2001): 914–31.

Management Practices

Amazon logo Bloom, Nicholas, and John Van Reenen. "Human Resource Management and Productivity." Chapter 19 in Handbook of Labor Economics. Vol. 4B. Edited by Orley Ashenfelter and David Card. North Holland, 2010, pp. 1697–768. ISBN: 9780444534521.

Bloom, Nicholas, Benn Eifert, et al. "Does Management Matter? Evidence from India." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128, no. 1 (2013): 1–51. (Forthcoming)

Intergenerational Mobility - Theory and Measurement and Intergenerational mobility - Empirics

Becker, Gary, and Nigel Tomes. "An Equilibrium Theory of the Distribution of Income and Intergenerational Mobility." Journal of Political Economy 87, no. 6 (1979): 1153–89.

Björklund, Anders, Mikael Lindahl, et al. "The Origins of Intergenerational Associations: Lessons from Swedish Adoption Data." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 121, no. 3 (2006): 999–1028.

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Early Life Determinants of Long-run Outcomes

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Case, Anne, and Christina Paxson. "Causes and Consequences of Early Life Health." Demography 47, no. 1 (2010): S65–85.

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Deming, David. "Early Childhood Intervention and Life-cycle Skill Development." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1, no. 3 (2009): 111–34.

Heckman, James. "The Economics, Technology, and Neuroscience of Human Capability Formation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, no. 33 (2007): 13250–55.

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Royer, Heather. "Separated at Girth: U.S. Twin Estimates of the Effects of Birth Weight." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1, no. 1 (2009): 49–85.

Smith, James. "The Impact of Childhood Health on Adult Labor Market Outcomes." The Review of Economics and Statistics 91, no. 3 (2009): 478–89.