This video is the first of two lectures in this unit.

Instructors: Prof. Paul Penfield, Prof. Seth Lloyd

## Resources

### Technical

Salomon, David. "Huffman Coding," and "Facsimile Compression using Huffman Coding." Section 2.8 and 2.13 in *Data Compression*. London, England: Springer, 2006. ISBN: 9781846286025.

The Human Mortality Database from University of California, Berkeley.

MIT current year student enrollment data: all students and women students

Sebastiani, Paola. "A Tutorial on Probability Theory." (PDF)^{#} One of many good tutorials on the subject.

### Historical

David, F. N. *Games, Gods and Gambling*. London, England: Charles Griffen & Co., 1962 Reprint, Dover 1998. ISBN: 9780486400235.

Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), the first mathematician to calculate probabilities correctly.

Thomas Bayes (1702-1761)

David A. Huffman (1925-1999) obituary

### Books

There are many excellent texts on probability, many of which do not assume a familiarity with mathematics beyond introductory calculus. Most books on communications include a summary of the necessary background in probability.

Drake, Alvin W. *Fundamentals of Applied Probability Theory*. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1967. ISBN: 9780070178151.

Prof. Drake taught *6.041 Probabilistic Systems Analysis* for many years before he retired. He died Oct. 30, 2005. (Obituary)

Bertsekas, Dimitri P., and John N. Tsitsiklis. *Introduction to Probability*. Belmont, MA: Athena Scientific, 2002. ISBN: 9781886529403.

Used in 6.041 today.

Applebaum, David. *Probability and Information*. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780521727884.

Chapter 4 contains a good comparison of the different philosophies underlying probability (symmetry, subjective, frequency).

Haykin, Simon. *Communication Systems*. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2000. ISBN: 9780471178699. Appendix 1, "Probability Theory."