Salomon, David. "Huffman Coding," and "Facsimile Compression using Huffman Coding." Section 2.8 and 2.13 in Data Compression. London, England: Springer, 2006. ISBN: 9781846286025.
The Human Mortality Database from University of California, Berkeley.
MIT current year student enrollment data: all students and women students
Sebastiani, Paola. "A Tutorial on Probability Theory." (PDF)# One of many good tutorials on the subject.
David, F. N. Games, Gods and Gambling. London, England: Charles Griffen & Co., 1962. Reprint, Dover 1998. ISBN: 9780486400235.
Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), the first mathematician to calculate probabilities correctly.
Thomas Bayes (1702-1761)
David A. Huffman (1925-1999) obituary
There are many excellent texts on probability, many of which do not assume a familiarity with mathematics beyond introductory calculus. Most books on communications include a summary of the necessary background in probability.
Drake, Alvin W. Fundamentals of Applied Probability Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1967. ISBN: 9780070178151.
Prof. Drake taught 6.041 Probabilistic Systems Analysis for many years before he retired. He died Oct. 30, 2005. (Obituary)
Bertsekas, Dimitri P., and John N. Tsitsiklis. Introduction to Probability. Belmont, MA: Athena Scientific, 2002. ISBN: 9781886529403.
Used in 6.041 today.
Applebaum, David. Probability and Information. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780521727884.
Chapter 4 contains a good comparison of the different philosophies underlying probability (symmetry, subjective, frequency).
Haykin, Simon. Communication Systems. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2000. ISBN: 9780471178699. Appendix 1, Probability Theory.