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Introduced derivative-free optimization algorithms, for the common case where you don't have too many parameters (tens or hundreds) and computing the gradient is inconvenient (complicated programming, even if adjoint methods are theoretically applicable) or impossible (non-differentiable objectives). Started by discussing methods based on linear interpolation of simplices, such as the COBYLA algorithm of Powell.
Discussed derivative-free optimization based on quadratic approximation by symmetric Broyden updates (as in BOBYQA/NEWUOA algorithm of Powell, for example). Updating the Hessian turns into a quadratic programming (QP) problem, and discussed solution of QPs by construction of the dual, turning it into either an unconstrained QP (and hence a linear system) for equality constrained problems, or a bound-constrained QP for inequality-constrained QPs.