This experiment is an exercise in optical spectroscopy and a study of the spectra of hydrogenic atoms: atoms with one “optical” electron outside a closed shell of other electrons. A high-resolution scanning monochromator is used to study the Balmer lines of hydrogen and the more complex hydrogenic spectrum of sodium, using the mercury spectrum as the wavelength calibrator. The measured Balmer wavelengths are compared with the wavelengths predicted by the quantum theory of the hydrogen spectrum, and a value of the Rydberg is derived. The transitions responsible for the sodium spectrum are identified, and regularities in the fine structure and adherence to selection rules are observed. A measurement of the isotope shift between the Balmer lines of hydrogen and deuterium is made from which the ratio of the deuteron mass to the proton mass is derived.
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———. "Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom Part II." The Physical Review 81, no. 3 (1951): 222-232.
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HORIBA Scientific Tutorial on Optics and Spectroscopy
Hyperphysics Tutorial on Broadening of Spectral Lines