Recommended Readings

The readings in the table below are recommended for those of you who wish to do further reading on your own in preparation for comprehensive examinations or who are considering research on the topic.

There were no recommended readings for Weeks 1 and 13.

WEEK # TOPICS READINGS
2 Social structure, classes, and political regimes

Buy at Amazon Machiavelli, Niccolò. "The Prince." In The Portable Machiavelli. Edited and translated by Peter Bondanella and Mark Musa. Penguin Books, 1979, pp. 107–10. ISBN: 9780140150926. [Preview with Google Books]

de Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America, Volume II, Chapter IV, xroads.virginia.edu.

———. Democracy in America, Volume II, Chapter V, xroads.virginia.edu.

———. Democracy in America, Volume II, Chapter VI, xroads.virginia.edu.

———. Democracy in America, Volume II, Chapter VII, xroads.virginia.edu.

Buy at Amazon Hume, David. "Of Parties in General." Essay 8, Part 1 in Essays: Moral, Political and Literary. Edited by Eugene F. Miller. Liberty Fund, 1985. ISBN: 9780865970564. 

Buy at Amazon Dahl, Robert A. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. Yale University Press, 1972. ISBN: 9780300015652.

Buy at Amazon Lipset, Seymour Martin. Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. Expanded and updated edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981. ISBN: 9780801825224.

Buy at Amazon Lijphart, Arendt. The Politics of Accommodation: Pluralism and Democracy in the Netherlands. University of California Press, 1976. ISBN: 9780520029002. [Preview with Google Books]

Lichbach, Mark Irving. "An Evaluation of 'Does Economic Inequality Breed Political Conflict?' Studies." World Politics 41, no. 4 (1989): 431–70.

Buy at Amazon Collier, Ruth Berins, and David Collier. Shaping the Political Arena: Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement, and Regime Dynamics in Latin America. University of Notre Dame Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780268017729.

Buy at Amazon Berger, Suzanne. Peasants against Politics: Rural Organization in Brittany, 1911–1967. Harvard University Press, 1972. ISBN: 9780674659254.

3 The role of culture in democracy and economic growth

Buy at Amazon Thompson, Michael, Marco Verweij, and Richard J. Ellis. "Why and How Culture Matters." Chapter 17 in The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Edited by Robert E. Goodin and Charles Tilly. Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780199548446. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Ballinger, Pamela. "How to Detect Culture and Its Effects." Chapter 18 in The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Edited by Robert E. Goodin and Charles Tilly. Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780199548446.

Buy at Amazon Lichterman, Paul, and Daniel Cefaï. "The Idea of Political Culture." Chapter 21 in The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Edited by Robert E. Goodin and Charles Tilly. Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780199548446. [Preview with Google Books]

de Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America, Volume I, xroads.virginia.edu.
Note: Read the sections not assigned as required readings.

Buy at Amazon Banfield, Edward C. The Moral Basis of a Backward Society. Free Press, 1967. ISBN: 9780029015100.

Buy at Amazon Edwards, Bob, Michael W. Foley, and Mario Diani, eds. Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society and the Social Capital Debate in Comparative Perspective. Tufts University, 2001. ISBN: 9781584651253. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Skocpol, Theda, and Morris P. Fiorina, eds. Civic Engagement in American Democracy. Brookings Institution Press, 1999. ISBN: 9780815728092.

Buy at Amazon Eckstein, Harry. "A Theory of Stable Democracy." Chapter 5 in Regarding Politics: Essays on Political Theory, Stability, and Change. University of California Press, 1991. ISBN: 9780520077225. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "'Observing' Political Culture." Chapter 8 in Regarding Politics: Essays on Political Theory, Stability, and Change. University of California Press, 1991. ISBN: 9780520077225. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Hume, David. "Of National Characters." Essay 21, Part 1 in Essays: Moral, Political and Literary. Edited by Eugene F. Miller. Liberty Fund, 1985. ISBN: 9780865970564. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. 2nd ed. Translated by Talcott Parsons. Routledge, 2001. ISBN: 9780415254069.

Becker, Sascha O., and Ludger Woessmann. "Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic Activity." Quarterly Journal of Economics 124, no. 2 (2009): 531–96.

Buy at Amazon Braithwaite, Valerie, and Margaret Levi, eds. Trust & Governance: Volume I in the Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust. Russell Sage Foundation, 1998. ISBN: 9780871541345.

Greif, Avner. "Cultural Beliefs and the Organization of Society: A Historical and Theoretical Reflection on Collectivist and Individualist Societies." Journal of Political Economy 102, no. 5 (1994): 912–50.

Buy at Amazon Inglehart, Ronald. "Culture, Stable Democracy, and Economic Development." Chapter 1 in Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton University Press, 1989. ISBN: 9780691022963. [Preview with Google Books]

4 Constitutional choices and governmental performance

Buy at Amazon Shugart, Matthew Soberg, and John M. Carey. Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics. Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN: 9780521429900. [Preview with Google Books]

Gerring, John, Strom C. Thacker, et al. "Centripetal Democratic Governance: A Theory and Global Inquiry." American Political Science Review 99, no. 4 (2005): 567–81.

Cox, Gary W. "Centripetal and Centrifugal Incentives in Electoral Systems." American Journal of Political Science 34, no. 4 (1990): 903–35.

Iversen, Torben, and David Soskice. "Electoral Institutions and the Politics of Coalitions: Why Some Democracies Redistribute More Than Others." American Political Science Review 100, no. 2 (2006): 165–81.

Neto, Octavio Amorim, and Gary W. Cox. "Electoral Institutions, Cleavage Structures, and the Number of Parties." American Journal of Political Science 41, no. 1 (1997): 149–74.

Martin, Lanny W., and Randolph T. Stevenson. "Government Formation in Parliamentary Democracies." American Journal of Political Science 45, no. 1 (2001): 33–50.

Elgie, Robert. "From Linz to Tsebelis: three waves of presidential/parliamentary studies?" Democratization 12, no. 1 (2005): 106–22.

Buy at Amazon Clark, William Roberts, Matt Golder, and Sona Nadenichek Golder. "Parliamentary, Presidential, and Semi-Presidential Democracies: Making and Breaking Governments." Chapter 12 in Principles of Comparative Politics. 2nd ed. CQ Press, 2012. ISBN: 9781608716791.

Buy at Amazon Cox, Gary W. "Introduction." Chapter 1 in Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521585279. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "Duverger's propositions." Chapter 2 in Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521585279. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "On electoral systems." Chapter 3 in Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521585279. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "Strategic voting in single-member single-ballot systems." Chapter 4 in Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521585279. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "Strategic voting, party labels, and entry." Chapter 8 in Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521585279. [Preview with Google Books]

Carey, John M., and Matthew Soberg Shugart. "Incentives to cultivate a personal vote: A rank ordering of electoral systems." Electoral Studies 14, no. 4 (1995): 417–39.

Buy at Amazon Lijphart, Arend, ed. Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government. Oxford University Press, 1992. ISBN: 9780198780441.

Buy at Amazon Coppedge, Michael. Strong Parties and Lame Ducks: Presidential Partyarchy and Factionalism in Venezuela. Stanford University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780804729611. [Preview with Google Books]

Powell, Jr., G. Bingham. "Constitutional Design and Citizen Electoral Control." Journal of Theoretical Politics 1, no. 2 (1989): 107–30.

Rodden, Jonathan. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."The Dilemma of Fiscal Federalism: Grants and Fiscal Performance around the World." (PDF - 2.7 MB) American Journal of Political Science 46, no. 3 (2002): 670–87.

Buy at Amazon Schmitter, Philippe C. "Interest intermediation and regime governability in contemporary Western Europe and North America." Chapter 10 in Organizing Interests in Western Europe: Pluralism, Corporatism, and the Transformation of Politics. Edited by Suzanne D. Berger. Cambridge University Press, 1983. ISBN: 9780521270625. [Preview with Google Books]

5 Leadership

Buy at Amazon Machiavelli, Niccolò. "The Prince." In The Portable Machiavelli. Edited and translated by Peter Bondanella and Mark Musa. Penguin Books, 1979. ISBN: 9780140150926. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Samuels, Richard J. Machiavelli's Children: Leaders & Their Legacies in Italy & Japan. Cornell University Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780801489822.

Buy at Amazon Mukunda, Gautam. Indispensable: When Leaders Really Matter. Harvard Business Review Press, 2012. ISBN: 9781422186701. 

Lawson, Chappell. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Rulership: How and Why Political Leaders Matter." 2013.

Padgett, John F., and Christopher K. Ansell. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, 1400–1434 (PDF - 1.4 MB)." American Journal of Sociology 98, no. 6 (1993): 1259–319.

Greenstein, Fred I. "The Impact of Personality on the End of the Cold War: A Counterfactual Analysis." Political Psychology 19, no. 1 (1998): 1–16.

Buy at Amazon George, Alexander L., and Juliette L. George. Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House: A Personality Study. Dover Publications, 1964. ISBN: 9780486211442. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon de Mesquita, Bruce Bueno. Strategy, Risk and Personality in Coalition Politics: The Case of India. Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN: 9780521126458. [Preview with Google Books]

Simonton, Dean Keith. "Intergenerational transfer of individual differences in hereditary monarchs: genetic, role-modeling, cohort, or sociocultural effects?" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44, no. 2 (1983): 354–64.

———. "Leader age and national condition: A longitudinal analysis of 25 European monarchs." Social Behavior and Personality 12, no. 2 (1984): 111–4.

———. "Putting the Best Leaders in the White House: Personality, Policy, and Performance." Political Psychology 14, no. 3 (1993): 537–48.

Buy at Amazon Singham, A. W. The Hero and the Crowd in a Colonial Polity. Yale University Press, 1968.

Buy at Amazon Skowronek, Stephen. The Politics Presidents Make: Leadership from John Adams to Bill Clinton. Belknap Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780674689374. [Preview with Google Books]

Thorlindsson, Thorolfur. "The Skipper Effect in the Icelandic Herring Fishery." Human Organization 47, no. 3 (1988): 199–212.

Mahoney, James, and Richard Snyder. "Rethinking agency and structure in the study of regime change." Studies in Comparative International Development 34, no. 2 (1999): 3–32.

6 The state and state formation

Stasavage, David. "When Distance Mattered: Geographic Scale and the Development of European Representative Assemblies." American Political Science Review 104, no. 4 (2010): 625–43.

Buy at Amazon Skowronek, Stephen. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877–1920. Cambridge University Press, 1982. ISBN: 9780521288651. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Centeno, Miguel Angel. Blood and Debt: War and the Nation-State in Latin America. Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780271023069. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Herbst, Jeffrey. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780691010281. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Levi, Margaret. Of Rule and Revenue. University of California Press, 1989. ISBN: 9780520067509.

Buy at Amazon Skocpol, Theda. "Bringing the State Back In: Strategies and Analysis of Current Research." Chapter 1 in Bringing the State Back In. Edited by Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol. Cambridge University Press, 1985. ISBN: 9780521313131. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Bates, Robert H. When Things Fell Apart: State Failure in Late-Century Africa. Cambridge University Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780521715256.

Buy at Amazon Ertman, Thomas. Birth of the Leviathan: Building States and Regimes in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521484275. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Barkey, Karen. Bandits and Bureaucrats: The Ottoman Route to State Centralization. Cornell University Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780801484193. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Alavi, Hamza. "The State in Post-Colonial Societies: Pakistan and Bangladesh." In Imperialism and Revolution in South Asia. Edited by Kathleen Gough and Hari P. Sharma. Monthly Review Press, 1973. ISBN: 9780853452737.

Buy at Amazon Trimberger, Ellen Kay. Revolution from Above: Military Bureaucrats and Development in Japan, Turkey, Egypt, and Peru. Transaction Publishers, 1978. ISBN: 9780878551361.

Buy at Amazon Price, Robert M. Society and Bureaucracy in Contemporary Ghana. University of California Press, 1975. ISBN: 9780520028111.

Buy at Amazon Hintze, Otto. "Military Organization and the Organization of States." In The Historical Essays of Otto Hintze. Edited with an introduction by Felix Gilbert. Oxford University Press, 1975. ISBN: 9780195018196.

Buy at Amazon Skocpol, Theda. "State Formation and Social Policy in the United States." In Reexamining Democracy: Essays in Honor of Seymour Martin Lipset. Edited by Gary Marks and Larry Diamond. Sage Publications, Inc., 1992. ISBN: 9780803946415.

Buy at Amazon North, Douglass C. "A Neoclassical Theory of the State." Chapter 3 in Structure and Change in Economic History. W. W. Norton & Company, 1982. ISBN: 9780393952414.

7 Modernization and development

Skocpol, Theda. "A Critical Review of Barrington Moore's Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy." Politics & Society 4, no. 1 (1973): 1–34.

Buy at Amazon Moore, Jr., Barrington. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Beacon Press, 1993. ISBN: 9780807050736.
Note: Read the sections not assigned as required readings.

Glynn, Adam N., and Nahomi Ichino. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Increasing Inferential Leverage in the Comparative Method: Placebo Tests in Small-n Research." (PDF) 2012.

Capoccia, Giovanni, and Daniel Ziblatt. "The Historical Turn in Democratization Studies: A New Research Agenda for Europe and Beyond." Comparative Political Studies 43, no. 8–9 (2010): 931–68.

Buy at Amazon Lerner, Daniel. The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East. Macmillan Pub Co, 1958. ISBN: 9780029185803.

Buy at Amazon Rostow, W.W. The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, 1991. ISBN: 9780521409285. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Huntington, Samuel P. Political Order in Changing Societies. Yale University Press, 2006. ISBN: 9780300116205.

Tilly, Charles. "Does Modernization Breed Revolution?" Comparative Politics 5, no. 3 (1973): 425–47.

Przeworski, Adam, and Fernando Limongi. "Modernization: Theories and Facts." World Politics 49, no. 2 (1997): 155–93.

Buy at Amazon Collier, David. "Overview of the Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Model." Chapter 1 in The New Authoritarianism in Latin America. Princeton University Press, 1980. ISBN: 9780691021942. [Preview with Google Books]

Im, Hyug Baeg. "The Rise of Bureaucratic Authoritarianism in South Korea." World Politics 39, no. 2 (1987): 231–57.

Buy at Amazon Gerschenkron, Alexander. Bread and Democracy in Germany. Cornell University Press, 1989. ISBN: 9780801495861. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Janos, Andrew C. The Politics of Backwardness in Hungary, 1825–1945. Princeton University Press, 1982. ISBN: 9780691076331.

8 Political institutions and economic growth

North, Douglass C., and Barry R. Weingast. "Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England." Journal of Economic History 49, no. 4 (1989): 803–32.

Stasavage, David. "Cities, Constitutions, and Sovereign Borrowing in Europe, 1274–1785." International Organization 61, no. 3 (2007): 489–525.

Buy at Amazon Tendler, Judith. Good Government in the Tropics. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780801860928.

Buy at Amazon Bates, Robert H. Markets and States in Tropical Africa: The Political Basis of Agricultural Policies. 2nd ed. University of California Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780520244931. [Preview with Google Books]

Goldsmith, Arthur A. "Africa's Overgrown State Reconsidered: Bureaucracy and Economic Growth." World Politics 51, no. 4 (1999): 520–46.

Buy at Amazon Kohli, Atul. State-Directed Development: Political Power and Industrialization in the Global Periphery. Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN: 9780521545259. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Johnson, Chalmers A. MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925–1975. Stanford University Press, 1982. ISBN: 9780804712064. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Waterbury, John. Exposed to Innumerable Delusions: Public Enterprise and State Power in Egypt, India, Mexico, and Turkey. Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN: 9780521435499. [Preiew with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon Amsden, Alice H. "The State and Taiwan's Economic Development." Chapter 3 in Bringing the State Back In. Edited by Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol. Cambridge University Press, 1985. ISBN: 9780521313131. [Preview with Google Books]

Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, et al. "Institutions as the Fundamental Cause of Long-Run Growth." NBER Working Paper 10481. May 2004.

Blaydes, Lisa, and Eric Chaney. "The Feudal Revolution and Europe's Rise: Political Divergence of the Christian West and the Muslim World before 1500 CE." American Political Science Review 107, no. 1 (2013): 16–34.

Buy at Amazon Kuran, Timur. The Long Divergence: How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East. Princeton University Press, 2012. ISBN: 9780691156415. [Preview with Google Books]

———. "Why the Middle East is Economically Underdeveloped: Historical Mechanisms of Stagnation." Journal of Economic Perspectives 18, no. 3 (2004): 71–90.

9 Nationalism

Buy at Amazon Gellner, Ernest. "Definitions." Chapter 1 in Nations and Nationalism. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780801475009. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "Culture in Agarian Society." Chapter 2 in Nations and Nationalism. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780801475009.

Buy at Amazon ———. "Industrial Society." Chapter 3 in Nations and Nationalism. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780801475009.

Buy at Amazon ———. "The Transition to an Age of Nationalism." Chapter 4 in Nations and Nationalism. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780801475009. 

Buy at Amazon ———. "Conclusion." Chapter 10 in Nations and Nationalism. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780801475009.

Buy at Amazon Beissinger, Mark R. Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State. Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780521001489. [Preview with Google Books]

Hall, Peter A. "Policy Paradigms, Social Learning, and the State: The Case of Economic Policymaking in Britain." Comparative Politics 25, no. 3 (1993): 275–96.

Varshney, Ashutosh. "Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and Rationality." Perspectives on Politics 1, no. 1 (2003): 85–99.

Buy at Amazon Hechter, Michael. Containing Nationalism. Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN: 9780199247516.

10 Parties, party systems, and electoral behavior

Rabinowitz, George, and Stuart Elaine Macdonald. "A Directional Theory of Issue Voting." American Political Science Review 83, no. 1 (1989): 93–121.

Buy at Amazon Budge, Ian, David Robertson, and Derek Heari, eds. Ideology, Strategy and Party Change: Spatial Analysis of Post-War Election Programmes in 19 Democracies. Cambridge University Press, 1987. ISBN: 9780521306485. [Preview with Google Books]

Greene, Kenneth F. "Dominant Party Strategy and Democratization." American Journal of Political Science 52, no. 1 (2008): 16–31.

Buy at Amazon Duverger, Maurice. Political Parties: Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State. Routledge Kegan & Paul, 1964. ISBN: 9780416683202.

Buy at Amazon Cox, Gary W. "Introduction." Chapter 1 in Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521585279. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "Duverger's propositions." Chapter 2 in Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521585279. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "On electoral systems." Chapter 3 in Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521585279. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "Strategic voting in single-member single-ballot systems." Chapter 4 in Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521585279. [Preview with Google Books]

Buy at Amazon ———. "Strategic voting, party labels, and entry." Chapter 8 in Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521585279. [Preview with Google Books]

Kitschelt, Herbert. "The Formation of Party Systems in East Central Europe." Politics & Society 20, no. 1 (1992): 7–50.

Buy at Amazon Wittenberg, Jason. Crucibles of Political Loyalty: Church Institutions and Electoral Continuity in Hungary. Cambridge University Press, 2012. ISBN: 9781107404847.

Buy at Amazon  Mair, Peter. "Party Organizations: From Civil Society to the State." Chapter 1 in How Parties Organize: Change and Adaptation in Party Organizations in Western Democracies. Edited by Richard S. Katz and Peter Mair. Sage Publications Ltd, 1995. ISBN: 9780803979611. [Preview with Google Books]

Whiteley, Paul F., Patrick Seyd, et al. "Explaining Party Activism: The Case of the British Conservative Party." British Journal of Political Science 24, no. 1 (1994): 79–94.

Buy at Amazon Bardi, Luciano, and Leonardo Morlino. "Italy: Tracing the Roots of the Great Transformation." Chapter 10 in How Parties Organize: Change and Adaptation in Party Organizations in Western Democracies. Edited by Richard S. Katz and Peter Mair. Sage Publications, 1995. ISBN: 9780803979611. [Preview with Google Books]

Dalton, Russell J. "Political Parties and Political Representation: Party Supporters and Party Elites in Nine Nations." Comparative Political Studies 18, no. 3 (1985): 267–99.

Buy at Amazon Gallagher, Michael, and Michael Marsh, eds., Candidate Selection in Comparative Perspective: The Secret Garden of Politics. Sage Publications, 1988. ISBN: 9780803981249.

11 Clientelism and patronage politics

Lawson, Chappell, and Kenneth F. Greene. "Self-Enforcing Clientelism." (DOC) Draft. April 30, 2012.

Buy at Amazon Stokes, Susan C., Thad Dunning, et al. Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism: The Puzzle of Distributive Politics. Cambridge University Press, 2013. ISBN: 9781107660397.

Buy at Amazon Cornelius, Wayne A. Politics and the Migrant Poor in Mexico City. Stanford University Press, 1975. ISBN: 9780804708807.

Auyero, Javier. "The Logic of Clientelism in Argentina: An Ethnographic Account." Latin American Research Review 35, no. 3 (2000): 55–82.

Buy at Amazon Hagopian, Frances. Traditional Politics and Regime Change in Brazil. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN: 9780521032889. [Preview with Google Books]

Gay, Robert. "Neighborhood Associations and Political Change in Rio de Janeiro." Latin American Research Review 25, no. 1 (1990): 102–18.

Buy at Amazon Chubb, Judith. Patronage, Power, & Poverty in Southern Italy: A Tale of Two Cities. Cambridge University Press, 1983. ISBN: 9780521236379. [Preview with Google Books]

Golden, Miriam A. "Electoral Connections: The Effects of the Personal Vote on Political Patronage, Bureaucracy and Legislation in Postwar Italy." British Journal of Political Science 33, no. 2 (2003): 189–212.

Buy at Amazon Mainwaring, Scott P. "Patronage, Clientelism, and Patrimonialism." Chapter 6 in Rethinking Party Systems in the Third Wave of Democratization: The Case of Brazil. Stanford University Press, 1999. ISBN: 9780804730594. [Preview with Google Books]

Gandhi, Jennifer, and Ellen Lust-Okar. "Elections Under Authoritarianism." Annual Review of Political Science 12 (2009): 403–22.

Buy at Amazon Magaloni, Beatriz. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and Its Demise in Mexico. Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN: 9780521862479.

Greene, Kenneth F. "The Political Economy of Authoritarian Single-Party Dominance." Comparative Political Studies 43, no. 7 (2010): 807–34.

Buy at Amazon Blaydes, Lisa. Elections and Distributive Politics in Mubarak's Egypt. Cambridge University Press, 2013. ISBN: 9781107617018.

Fox, Jonathan. "The Difficult Transition from Clientelism to Citizenship: Lessons from Mexico." World Politics 46, no. 2 (1994): 151–84.

Buy at Amazon Gay, Robert. "The Even More Difficult Transition from Clientelism to Citizenship: Lessons from Brazil." Chapter 7 in Out of the Shadows: Political Action and the Informal Economy in Latin America. Edited by Patricia Fernández-Kelly and Jon Shefner. Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780271027517. [Preview with Google Books]

Nichter, Simeon. "Vote Buying or Turnout Buying? Machine Politics and the Secret Ballot." American Political Science Review 102, no. 1 (2008): 19–31.

Dal Bó, Ernesto. "Bribing Voters." American Journal of Political Science 51, no. 4 (2007): 789–803.

Vicente, Pedro C., and Leonard Wantchekon. "Clientelism and vote buying: lessons from field experiments in African elections." Oxford Review of Economic Policy 25, no. 2 (2009): 292–305.

Buy at Amazon Ostrogorski, Moisei. Democracy and the Party System in the United States: A Study in Extra-Constitutional Government. University of Michigan Library, 2009.

Buy at Amazon Gosnell, Harold F. Machine Politics: Chicago Model. 2nd ed. University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Buy at Amazon Allswang, John M. Bosses, Machines, and Urban Voters: An American Symbiosis. Kennikat Press, 1977. ISBN: 9780804692021.

Buy at Amazon Erie, Steven P. Rainbow's End: Irish-Americans and the Dilemmas of Urban Machine Politics, 1840–1985. University of California Press, 1990. ISBN: 9780520071834.

12 Corruption and monitoring government

The World Bank. "Making Services Work for Poor People." World Development Report 2004. worldbank.org.

Harding, Robin, and David Stasavage. "What Democracy Does (and Doesn’t do) for Basic Services: School Fees, School Quality, and African Elections." Journal of Politics 76, no. 1 (2014): 229–45.

Nagin, Daniel S., James B. Rebitzer, et al. "Monitoring, Motivation, and Management: The Determinants of Opportunistic Behavior in a Field Experiment." American Economic Review 92, no. 4 (2002): 850–73.

Chaudhury, Nazmul, Jeffrey Hammer, et al. "Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries." Journal of Economic Perspective 20, no. 1 (2006): 91–116.

Buy at Amazon Rose-Ackerman, Susan. Corruption and Government: Causes, Consequences, and Reform. Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN: 9780521659123. [Preview with Google Books]

Reinikka, Ritva, and Jakob Svensson. "Local Capture: Evidence from a Central Government Transfer Program in Uganda." Quarterly Journal of Economics 119, no. 2 (2004): 679–705.

Di Tella, Rafael, and Ernesto Schargrodsky. "The Role of Wages and Auditing During a Crackdown on Corruption in the City of Buenos Aires." Journal of Law and Economics 46, no. 1 (2003): 269–92.

Fisman, Raymond. "Estimating the Value of Political Connections." American Economic Review 91, no. 4 (2001): 1095–102.

Lederman, Daniel, Norman V. Loayza, et al. "Accountability and Corruption: Political Institutions Matter." Economics & Politics 17, no. 1 (2005): 1–35.

Golden, Miriam A., and Lucio Picci. "Proposal for a New Measure of Corruption, Illustrated with Italian Data." Economics & Politics 17, no. 1 (2005): 37–75.