Part III: The Circular Functions

In its original form, trigonometry quantified the relationship between the sides and angles of a triangle and was a branch of geometry that was used extensively in the study of surveying and later in astronomy. As time went on, it was discovered that the properties of the trigonometric functions had much broader applications to such cyclic phenomenon as simple harmonic motion and sound waves. It is in this context that the circular functions are introduced as an outgrowth or extension of the trigonometric functions.