MIT OpenCourseWare: New Courses with Online Textbooks ContentNew courses with Online Textbooks in all departments from MIT OpenCourseWare, provider of free and open MIT course materials.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/ol/
2019-08-21T20:13:13+05:00MIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduen-USContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm18.S097 Applied Category Theory (MIT)Category theory is a relatively new branch of mathematics that has transformed much of pure math research. The technical advance is that category theory provides a framework in which to organize formal systems and by which to translate between them, allowing one to transfer knowledge from one field to another. But this same organizational framework also has many compelling examples outside of pure math. In this course, we will give seven sketches on real-world applications of category theory.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mathematics/18-s097-applied-category-theory-january-iap-2019
January IAP2019Spivak, David I.Fong, Brendan2019-03-25T19:18:33+05:0018.S097en-USorderadjunctionsetGalois connectionmonoidal preorderwiring diagramV-categoriesBool-categoriescategoriesfunctorslimitscolimitsmonoidal categorieshypergraph categoriessheavestoposesMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm8.01SC Classical Mechanics (MIT)This first course in the physics curriculum introduces classical mechanics. Historically, a set of core concepts—space, time, mass, force, momentum, torque, and angular momentum—were introduced in classical mechanics in order to solve the most famous physics problem, the motion of the planets. The principles of mechanics successfully described many other phenomena encountered in the world. Conservation laws involving energy, momentum and angular momentum provided a second parallel approach to solving many of the same problems. In this course, we will investigate both approaches: Force and conservation laws. Our goal is to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts, a familiarity with the experimental verification of our theoretical laws, and an ability to apply the theoretical framework to describe and predict the motions of bodies.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-01sc-classical-mechanics-fall-2016
Fall2016Chakrabarty, DeeptoDourmashkin, PeterTomasik, MichelleFrebel, AnnaVuletic, Vladan2017-06-02T17:19:25+05:008.01SCen-USclassical mechanicsSpace and timestraight-line kinematicsmotion in a planeforces and equilibriumexperimental basis of Newton's lawsparticle dynamicsuniversal gravitationcollisions and conservation lawswork and potential energyvibrational motionconservative forcesinertial forces and non-inertial framescentral force motionsrigid bodies and rotational dynamicsMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmRES.15-003 Shaping the Future of Work (15.662x) (MIT)The goal of this course is to explore and develop plans of action for improving the job and career opportunities for today and tomorrow's workforce. If we take the right actions we can shape the future of work in ways that meet the needs of workers, families, and their economies and societies. To do so we first have to understand how the world of work is changing, how firms can compete and prosper and support good jobs and careers, and how to update the policies and practices governing the world of work.
https://ocw.mit.edu/resources/res-15-003-shaping-the-future-of-work-15-662x-spring-2016
Spring2016Kochan, Thomas A.2017-03-07T18:03:29+05:00en-USfuture of workworklaborcareeropportunitiesnext generationworkforcelabor marketthe New Dealpost-warsocial contract1980sSaturnwork systemsalternate modelsglobal corporationsorganizationlabor unionjob securityemerging modelsnew technologycollective negotiationnegotiationMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm6.005 Software Construction (MIT)6.005 Software Construction introduces fundamental principles and techniques of software development, i.e., how to write software that is safe from bugs, easy to understand, and ready for change. The course includes problem sets and a final project. Important topics include specifications and invariants; testing; abstract data types; design patterns for object-oriented programming; concurrent programming and concurrency; and functional programming. The 6.005 website homepage from Spring 2016, along with all course materials, is available to OpenCourseWare users.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-005-software-construction-spring-2016
Spring2016Miller, RobertGoldman, Max2017-01-31T21:23:39+05:006.005en-USSoftware ConstructionSoftware EngineeringStatic CheckingBasic JavaTestingCode ReviewVersion ControlSpecificationsDebuggingMutabilityImmutabilityRecursionAbstract Data TypesADTsInterfacesData TypesRegular Expressions and GrammarsParserGeneratorConcurrencyThread SafetyNetworkingQueuesLocksSynchronizationGUIGraphical User InterfacesMap filter reduceTeam version controlMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm15.014 Applied Macro- and International Economics II (MIT)This course seeks to establish understanding of the development processes of societies and economies by studying several dimensions of sustainability (environmental, social, political, institutional, economy, organizational, relational, and personal) and the balance among them. It explores the basics of governmental intervention, focusing on areas such as the judicial system, environment, social security, and health, and builds skills to determine what type of policy is most appropriate. We also consider implications of new technologies on the financial sector: Internationalization of currencies, mobile payment systems, and cryptocurrencies, and discuss the institutional framework to ensure choices are sustainable across all dimensions and applications.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/sloan-school-of-management/15-014-applied-macro-and-international-economics-ii-spring-2016
Spring2016Rigobon, Roberto2016-12-06T19:04:12+05:0015.014en-USmacroeconomicsinternational economicsworld economiesglobal tradeeconomic policyinflationinterest ratesexchange ratesnational economic strategiesdeveloping nationscurrency crisistransition economiesglobal marketsworld bankIMFinternational monetary fundmonetary policydepressionunemploymentinternational financial architectureMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm16.63J System Safety (MIT)This course introduces the concepts of system safety and how to analyze and design safer systems. Topics include the causes of accidents in general, and recent major accidents in particular; hazard analysis, safety-driven design techniques; design of human-automation interaction; integrating safety into the system engineering process; and managing and operating safety-critical systems.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/aeronautics-and-astronautics/16-63j-system-safety-spring-2016
Spring2016Leveson, Nancy2016-11-29T21:07:59+05:0016.63JESD.03JIDS.045Jen-US16.63J16.63ESD.03JESD.03hindsight biassystem accident reportsSystems Theoretic Process AnalysisSTPASystem-Theoretic Accident Model and ProcessesSTAMPhuman factorscyber securityCAST analysissystem theoryaccident modelshazard analysisMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm16.863J System Safety (MIT)This course covers important concepts and techniques in designing and operating safety-critical systems. Topics include the nature of risk, formal accident and human error models, causes of accidents, fundamental concepts of system safety engineering, system and software hazard analysis, designing for safety, fault tolerance, safety issues in the design of human-machine interaction, verification of safety, creating a safety culture, and management of safety-critical projects. Includes a class project involving the high-level system design and analysis of a safety-critical system.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/aeronautics-and-astronautics/16-863j-system-safety-spring-2016
Spring2016Leveson, Nancy2016-11-29T19:17:51+05:0016.863JESD.863JIDS.340Jen-USESD.863JESD.86316.863J16.863risk managementhuman error modelssystem safety engineeringhazard analysissafety designfault tolerancesafety-critical systemhuman factors. cyber securitySystems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA)MIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm6.042J Mathematics for Computer Science (MIT)This subject offers an interactive introduction to discrete mathematics oriented toward computer science and engineering. The subject coverage divides roughly into thirds: Fundamental concepts of mathematics: Definitions, proofs, sets, functions, relations. Discrete structures: graphs, state machines, modular arithmetic, counting. Discrete probability theory. On completion of 6.042J, students will be able to explain and apply the basic methods of discrete (noncontinuous) mathematics in computer science. They will be able to use these methods in subsequent courses in the design and analysis of algorithms, computability theory, software engineering, and computer systems.Interactive site components can be found on the Unit pages in the left-hand navigational bar, starting with Unit 1: Proofs.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-042j-mathematics-for-computer-science-spring-2015
Spring2015Meyer, Albert R.Chlipala, Adam2016-09-12T18:10:48+05:006.042J18.062Jen-US6.0426.042J18.062J18.062formal logic notationproof methodsinductionsetsrelationsgraph theoryinteger congruencesasymptotic notationgrowth of functionspermutationscombinationscountingdiscrete probabilityMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm6.047 Computational Biology (MIT)This course covers the algorithmic and machine learning foundations of computational biology combining theory with practice. We cover both foundational topics in computational biology, and current research frontiers. We study fundamental techniques, recent advances in the field, and work directly with current large-scale biological datasets.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-047-computational-biology-fall-2015
Fall2015Kellis, Manolis2016-06-23T15:39:59+05:006.0476.878HST.507en-USGenomesNetworksEvolutioncomputational biologygenomicscomparative genomicsepigenomicsfunctional genomics, motifsphylogenomicspersonal genomicsalgorithmsmachine learningbiologybiological datasetsproteomicssequence analysissequence alignmentgenome assemblynetwork motifsnetwork evolutiongraph algorithmsphylogeneticspythonprobabilitystatisticsentropyinformationMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.051 Introduction to Heat Transfer (MIT)This course is an introduction to the principal concepts and methods of heat transfer. The objectives of this integrated subject are to develop the fundamental principles and laws of heat transfer and to explore the implications of these principles for system behavior; to formulate the models necessary to study, analyze and design heat transfer systems through the application of these principles; to develop the problem-solving skills essential to good engineering practice of heat transfer in real-world applications.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-051-introduction-to-heat-transfer-fall-2015
Fall2015Varanasi, Kripa2016-06-06T19:03:03+05:002.051en-USConductionConvectionRadiationFourier LawEnergy BalanceFirst law of thermodynamicsThermal resistance networkThermal Energy GenerationFinsHeat Transfer in FinsMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.18 Biomolecular Feedback Systems (MIT)This course focuses on feedback control mechanisms that living organisms implement at the molecular level to execute their functions, with emphasis on techniques to design novel systems with prescribed behaviors. Students will learn how biological functions can be understood and designed using notions from feedback control.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-18-biomolecular-feedback-systems-spring-2015
Spring2015Del Vecchio, Domitilla2015-11-04T09:57:51+05:002.182.180en-USbiomolecular feedback systemssystems biologymodelingfeedbackcellsystemcontroldynamicalinput/outputsynthetic biologytechniquestranscriptiontranslationtranscriptional regulationpost-transcriptional regulationcellular subsystemsdynamic behavioranalysisequilibriumrobustnessoscillatory behaviorbifurcationsmodel reductionstochasticbiochemicalsimulationlinearcircuitdesignbiological circuit designnegative autoregulationtoggle switchrepressilatoractivator-repressor clockIFFLincoherent feedforward loopbacterial chemotaxisinterconnecting componentsmodularityretroactivitygene circuitdesignMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.086 Numerical Computation for Mechanical Engineers (MIT)This class introduces elementary programming concepts including variable types, data structures, and flow control. After an introduction to linear algebra and probability, it covers numerical methods relevant to mechanical engineering, including approximation (interpolation, least squares and statistical regression), integration, solution of linear and nonlinear equations, ordinary differential equations, and deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Examples are drawn from mechanical engineering disciplines, in particular from robotics, dynamics, and structural analysis. Assignments require MATLAB® programming.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-086-numerical-computation-for-mechanical-engineers-fall-2014
Fall2014Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.Patera, Anthony T.2015-07-09T15:38:51+05:002.086en-USMATLABnumerical analysisprogrammingphysical modelingcalculuslinear algebraMonte Carlo Methoddifferential equationsnonlinear systemsvariable typesdata structureflow controlprobabilitystatisticsroboticsMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm18.440 Probability and Random Variables (MIT)This course introduces students to probability and random variables. Topics include distribution functions, binomial, geometric, hypergeometric, and Poisson distributions. The other topics covered are uniform, exponential, normal, gamma and beta distributions; conditional probability; Bayes theorem; joint distributions; Chebyshev inequality; law of large numbers; and central limit theorem.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mathematics/18-440-probability-and-random-variables-spring-2014
Spring2014Sheffield, Scott2015-05-14T17:12:51+05:0018.440en-USProbability spacesrandom variablesdistribution functionsBinomialgeometrichypergeometricPoisson distributionsUniformexponentialnormalgamma and beta distributionsConditional probabilityBayes theoremjoint distributionsChebyshev inequalitylaw of large numbersAnd central limit theoremMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm22.15 Essential Numerical Methods (MIT)This half-semester course introduces computational methods for solving physical problems, especially in nuclear applications. The course covers ordinary and partial differential equations for particle orbit, and fluid, field, and particle conservation problems; their representation and solution by finite difference numerical approximations; iterative matrix inversion methods; stability, convergence, accuracy and statistics; and particle representations of Boltzmann's equation and methods of solution such as Monte-Carlo and particle-in-cell techniques.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/nuclear-engineering/22-15-essential-numerical-methods-fall-2014
Fall2014Hutchinson, Ian2015-04-01T20:49:38+05:0022.15en-USMATLABOctavenumerical methodsnumerical analysiscomputational methodsdifferential equationsapproximationfinite differenceiterationMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.080J Structural Mechanics (MIT)This course covers the fundamental concepts of structural mechanics with applications to marine, civil, and mechanical structures. Topics include analysis of small deflections of beams, moderately large deflections of beams, columns, cables, and shafts; elastic and plastic buckling of columns, thin walled sections and plates; exact and approximate methods; energy methods; principle of virtual work; introduction to failure analysis of structures. We will include examples from civil, mechanical, offshore, and ship structures such as the collision and grounding of ships.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-080j-structural-mechanics-fall-2013
Fall2013Wierzbicki, Tomasz2015-01-18T01:52:39+05:002.080J1.573Jen-USvectortensorstatic equilibriumstrainstressMohr's circleelasticvirtual workminimum total potential energybeam deflectionsenergy methodshear stressbeamshaftexperimental mechanicsstabilityRayleigh-Ritz quotientcolumnbucklingloadplateyieldplasticitycylinderfractureimplosionsubmarineColumbia Space ShuttleBPDeepwater HorizoncrashworthinessMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmRES.6-011 The Art of Insight in Science and Engineering: Mastering Complexity (MIT)In this book, Sanjoy Mahajan shows us that the way to master complexity is through insight rather than precision. Precision can overwhelm us with information, whereas insight connects seemingly disparate pieces of information into a simple picture. Unlike computers, humans depend on insight. Based on the author's fifteen years of teaching at MIT, Cambridge University, and Olin College, The Art of Insight in Science and Engineering shows us how to build insight and find understanding, giving readers tools to help them solve any problem in science and engineering. (Description courtesy of MIT Press.)
https://ocw.mit.edu/resources/res-6-011-the-art-of-insight-in-science-and-engineering-mastering-complexity-fall-2014
Fall2014Mahajan, Sanjoy2014-12-12T22:27:46+05:00en-USapproximationscienceengineeringcomplexitydivide and conquerabstractionsymmetryproportiondimensionlumpingprobabalistic reasoningMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm18.782 Introduction to Arithmetic Geometry (MIT)This course is an introduction to arithmetic geometry, a subject that lies at the intersection of algebraic geometry and number theory. Its primary motivation is the study of classical Diophantine problems from the modern perspective of algebraic geometry.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mathematics/18-782-introduction-to-arithmetic-geometry-fall-2013
Fall2013Sutherland, Andrew2014-05-23T17:35:46+05:0018.782en-USalgebranumber theorydiophantine equationsalgebraic geometryplane conicselliptic curveshyperelliptic curvesabelian varietiesTate-Shafarevich groupMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.086 Numerical Computation for Mechanical Engineers (MIT)This class introduces elementary programming concepts including variable types, data structures, and flow control. After an introduction to linear algebra and probability, it covers numerical methods relevant to mechanical engineering, including approximation (interpolation, least squares and statistical regression), integration, solution of linear and nonlinear equations, ordinary differential equations, and deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Examples are drawn from mechanical engineering disciplines, in particular from robotics, dynamics, and structural analysis.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-086-numerical-computation-for-mechanical-engineers-spring-2013
Spring2013Patera, Anthony T.2014-03-18T21:37:49+05:002.086en-USMATLABnumerical analysisprogrammingphysical modelingcalculuslinear algebraMonte Carlo Methoddifferential equationsnonlinear systemsvariable typesdata structureflow controlprobabilitystatisticsroboticsMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmRES.6-010 Electronic Feedback Systems (MIT)Feedback control is an important technique that is used in many modern electronic and electromechanical systems. The successful inclusion of this technique improves performance, reliability, and cost effectiveness of many designs. In this series of lectures we introduce the analytical concepts that underlie classical feedback system design. The application of these concepts is illustrated by a variety of experiments and demonstration systems. The diversity of the demonstration systems reinforces the value of the analytic methods.
https://ocw.mit.edu/resources/res-6-010-electronic-feedback-systems-spring-2013
Spring2013Roberge, James2013-07-15T20:37:35+05:00en-USelectronic feedback systemsoperational amplifierselectromagnetic fieldsstabilityroot locusfeedback compensationnonlinearitiessystem dynamicsMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm2.086 Numerical Computation for Mechanical Engineers (MIT)This class introduces elementary programming concepts including variable types, data structures, and flow control. After an introduction to linear algebra and probability, it covers numerical methods relevant to mechanical engineering, including approximation (interpolation, least squares and statistical regression), integration, solution of linear and nonlinear equations, ordinary differential equations, and deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Examples are drawn from mechanical engineering disciplines, in particular from robotics, dynamics, and structural analysis. Assignments require MATLAB® programming.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-086-numerical-computation-for-mechanical-engineers-fall-2012
Fall2012Patera, Anthony T.Frey, DanielHadjiconstantinou, Nicholas2013-07-10T20:31:46+05:002.086en-USMATLABnumerical analysisprogrammingphysical modelingcalculuslinear algebraMonte Carlo Methoddifferential equationsnonlinear systemsMIT OpenCourseWare https://ocw.mit.eduContent within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm