and political forces as diverse as immigration, industrialization, rapid
transit, pollution, and the growth of municipal government re-shaped the Boston area at the
end of the nineteenth century. Some of the key processes are summarized
specialization and separation of places of work and home (Warner, 4).
Immigration- by 1875 60,000 foreign born Irish live in the city, anti-Irish violence begins (Warner).
of land area of the City of Boston through annexations- Roxbury 1867 West
Roxbury 1873 Charlestown 1874.
* Despite the
lack of city planning controls such as zoning, development tends to
cluster in particular areas depending on economic conditions, transit
access, and local land forms. Topography remains an important factor in
development, with hillside sites highly desirable, lowlands marginal (due
and fear of disease were common. Cholera killed thousands in American
cities during this period. Malaria remained a major concern as the causes
were still unknown.