11.201 | Fall 2005 | Graduate

Gateway: Planning Action


Required Texts

[PPD] Friedmann, John. Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987. ISBN: 0691022682.

Fisher, Roger, and William Ury. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Penguin, 1991. ISBN: 0395631246.

Readings by Session

Unit One: Introduction to Planning Traditions and Dilemmas - Prof. de Souza Briggs
L1 Course Overview, What is Planning, Learning from Theory and from Context (Cases)

Case: “Rebuilding Los Angeles: A Public-private-nonprofit partnership.” VHS. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School of Government Case Program, 1999.

Required Readings

Campbell, Scott, and Susan Fainstein. “Introduction: The Structure and Debates of Planning Theory.” In Readings in Planning Theory. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003, pp. 1-2. ISBN: 0631223479.

PPD, pp. 3-15.

Klosterman. “Arguments for and against planning.” In Readings in Planning Theory. Edited by Scott Campbell and Susan Fainstein. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003, pp. 86-101. ISBN: 0631223479.

Myers, Dowell, and Tridib Banerjee. “Longer view: Toward greater heights for planning.” Journal of the American Planning Association 71, no. 2 (2005): 121-129.

W1 Part One: Required Workshop on Professional Communication Zelazny, Gene. “From Data to Charts.” In Say It With Charts. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996. ISBN: 078630894X.
L2 Major Planning Traditions and Global Influences

Required Readings

PPD, pp. 19-29, 37-48, and 51-85.

Meyerson, Martin, and Edward Banfield. “Note on conceptual scheme.” Politics, Planning, and the Public Interest. New York, NY: Free Press, 1964, pp. 303-329.

Sen, Amartya. Development as Freedom. New York, NY: Anchor Books, 1999, preface, pp. 3-11. ISBN: 0385720270.

Recommended Readings

Brooks, David. “Katrina’s Silver Lining.” The New York Times, op-ed, September 8, 2005.

L3 From Traditions to Dilemmas

Required Readings

Davidoff, Paul. “Advocacy and pluralism in planning.” Journal of the American Institute of Planners 31 (1965): 544-555.

Altshuler, Alan. “The City Planning Process: A Political Analysis.” Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1965, pp. 299-304, 311-332.

Lindblom, Charles E. “The science of muddling through.” Public Administration Review 19 (1959): 79-88.

Wildavsky, Aaron. “If planning is everything, maybe it is nothing.” Policy Sciences 4 (1973): 127-153.

Recommended Readings

“The Shaming of America.” The Economist, September 10, 2005.

Rebuilding and ‘The Resilient City.’” NPR Broadcast. Morning Edition, September 13, 2005.

W2 Part Two: Required Workshop on Professional Communication  
Unit Two: (Case 1) Public Housing Redevelopment in Boston - Prof. Vale
L4 Case Introduction: Expert vs. Indigenous Knowledge; Power and Limits of Physical Design; Planning in Diverse Contexts (Race and Class)

Required Readings

Marcuse, Peter. “Interpreting ‘Public Housing’ History.” Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 12, no. 3 (Autumn 1995): 240-258.

Vale, Lawrence J. “Introduction,” and “Reclaiming Housing, Recovering Communities.” In Reclaiming Public Housing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, pp. 1-36, 362-411. ISBN: 0674008987.  
(Additional chapters from this book provide useful background for completing both the group and individual assignments.)

R1 Review Session - Same Classroom, Remaining Reviews

Recommended Readings

Housing Link. “Housing Terms.” (PDF)

Housing Link. “Abbreviations commonly used in housing.” (PDF)

L5 Case Discussion (cont.)

Required Readings

PPD. “Planning as Social Reform.” Chapter 3, pp. 87-136.

L6 Student Briefings  
R2 Review Session  
L7 Revisiting Planning Theory and Action

Required Readings

Scott, James C. “Authoritarian high modernism.” In Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998, pp. 87-102, 376-381. ISBN: 0300070160.

Fishman, Robert. “Urban Utopias: Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Le Corbusier.” In Urban Utopias of the Twentieth Century. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1977, pp. 3-20, 23-51, 64-75, and 226-234. ISBN: 046508933X.

Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York, NY: Vintage, 1961, introductory chapter. ISBN: 0679600477.

PPD. “Planning as social learning.” Chapter 5, pp. 181-187, 216-223.

Fung, Archon. Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004. ISBN: 0691115354.

Unit Three: (Case 2) Development and Mobilization - Narmada in India - Prof. Rajagopal
L8 Case Introduction: Planning from Above vs. Planning from Below (Social Mobilization); Planning in a Global/Transnational Age; Planning Politics

Required Readings

Roy, Arundhati. “The Greater Common Good.” 1999.

Khagram, Sanjeev. Dams and development: Transnational Struggles for Water and Power. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005, chapter 3. ISBN: 0801489075.

Kothari, Smitu. “Damming the Narmada and the Politics of Development.” In Toward Sustainable Development? Struggling over India’s Narmada River. Edited by William Fisher. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1995, pp. 421-444. ISBN: 1563245256.

Rajagopal, Balakrishnan. “The Violence of Development.” The Washington Post, August 8, 2001.

S1 Required Film on Narmada: Multiple Screenings Drowned out: We Can’t Wish Them Away. DVD. Directed by Franny Armstrong. Camden, England: Spanner Films, Ltd., 2002.
L9 Case Discussion (cont.)

Required Readings

Rajagopal, Balakrishnan. “Limits of law in counter-hegemonic globalization: The Indian Supreme Court and the Narmada valley struggle.” Working Paper, Center for Law and Governance, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, May 2004.

Sethi, Harsh. “Survival and Democracy: Ecological Struggles in India.” In New Social Movements in the South. Edited by Ponna Wignaraja. London, UK: Zed Books, 1993, pp. 122-148. ISBN: 1856491080.

Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making: The Report of the World Commission on Dams. London, UK: Earthscan, 2000, chapters 1, 4 and 7. ISBN: 1853837989.

R3 Review Session  
L10 Student Briefings

Recommended Readings

Khagram, Sanjeev. Dams and development: Transnational Struggles for Water and Power. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005, chapter 4. ISBN: 0801489075.

Fisher, William, ed. Toward Sustainable Development? Struggling over India’s Narmada River. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1995. ISBN: 1563245256.

Jayal, Niraja Gopal. Democracy and the State: Welfare, Secularism and Development in Contemporary India. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Baviskar, Amita. In the Belly of the River: Tribal Conflicts Over Development in the Narmada Valley. New Delhi, India; New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1995.

PBS. “The Dammed: Resources.”

Friends of the River Narmada

The Narmada Valley Development Authority, the state-level organization that oversees the dam construction in Madhya Pradesh

The Narmada Control Authority (NCA): The overseeing organization for the whole project. See especially the ‘Frequently asked questions’ section in the NCA’s Web site.

Report of the Indian People’s Tribunal on Environment and Human Rights.

National Water Policy, 2002, Government of India. (PDF)

Response to the WCD Report (see especially the World Bank’s and ICOLD member’s)

World Bank Water Resources Sector Strategy 2004

World Bank’s Inspection Panel

L11 Revisiting Planning Theory and Action

Required Readings

Rajagopal, Balakrishnan. International Law from Below: Development, Social Movements and Third World Resistance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003, chapters 2, 8. ISBN: 0521016711.

Sen, Amartya. Development as Freedom. New York, NY: Anchor Books, 1999, pp. 3-53. ISBN: 0385720270.

PPD. “Planning as social mobilization.” Chapter 6, pp. 225-250, 257-308.

de Souza Briggs, Xavier. “Organizing Stakeholders, Building Movement, Setting the Agenda.” The Community Problem-Solving Project, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 2003.

Unit Four: (Case 3) The Growth Machine and the Public Interest - Reinventing the Anacostia Waterfront in Washington, DC - Andrew Altman, MCP ‘88

Case Introduction: Comprehensiveness vs. Incrementalism; The City as Growth Machine; Power and Limits of Physical Design

Guest Lecturer: Andrew Altman, MCP ‘88

Required Readings

Katz, Bruce, and Andy Altman. “An Urban Renaissance in a Suburban Nation.” Ford Foundation Report (Spring/summer 2005): 32-33.

The Anacostia Waterfront: Imagine, Act, Transform Washington, DC.” Planning brochure, The Anacostia Waterfront Initiative, Washington, DC, 2003.

Bernstein, Fred. “Revitalizing the banks of Washington’s ‘Forgotten River.’” The New York Times, March 27, 2005.

Excerpt on political and social history of urban renewal in Washington, DC.

Logan, John, and Harvey Molotch. Urban Fortunes: The Political Economy of Place. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1987, pp. 1-4, 50-85. ISBN: 0520063414.

Recommended Readings

Hedgpeth. “Altman’s Departure has Developers Sighing.” The Washington Post, October 10, 2005.

Gillette, Howard. Between Justice and Beauty. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995, chapter 8, pp. 2-3. ISBN: 080185069X.

L13 Case Discussion (cont.)

Required Readings

Data and narrative: “East of the River” Community.

Equitable Development Material

Recommended Readings

Gillette, Howard. Between Justice and Beauty. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995, chapter 3. ISBN: 080185069X.

Williams, Brett. “A River Runs Through Us.” American Anthropologist 103, no. 2 (June 2001): 409-431.

PolicyLink. “Promoting Regional Equity.” Framing Paper, November 2002. (PDF - 1.2 MB)

Fuller, Steven. “The Employment Sectors of Washington, DC.” Center for Regional Analysis, School of Public Policy, George Mason University, Washington, DC, 2004.

DC Tenants Advocacy Coalition

R4 Review Session  
L14 Student Briefings

Recommended Readings

Lengel, Allan. “From Blight to Beautification.” The Washington Post, May 26, 2005.

Summit Fund of Washington. “Building Support for Restoring the Anacostia River.” December, 2004.

DC Appleseed Center

Byron, Joan. “Transforming the Southern Bronx River Watershed.” Pratt Institute Center for Community and Environmental Development Working Paper. Presented at the Walk21-V Cities for People Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004. (PDF - 4.2 MB)

Hamilton, James. “Is It Justice or Redistribution?” Review of Foreman, Christopher, Jr. “The Promise and Peril of Environmental Justice.” Regulation 22, no. 3 (Summer 1999). (PDF)

S.1472. “Anacostia Watershed Initiative Act of 2005.” Introduced in the Senate, July 22, 2005.

DC’s Transit Future: Anacostia Streetcar Project.

Ginsberg, Steven. “DC Shifts Light-Rail Plan from Waterfront to Streets in S.E.” The Washington Post, Metro, B02, April 28, 2005.

Layton, Lyndsey. “D.C. to Study 2.7-Mile Light-Rail Line in Anacostia; Experimental Spur Could Lead to 33-Mile Citywide System.” The Washington Post, Metro, B01, July 4, 2003.

“Anacostia Corridor Demonstration Project: Executive Summary of the General Plans and Environmental Assessment for the Anacostia Demonstration Project.” District of Columbia Department of Transportation and Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, September 2003. (PDF)

Anacostia Corridor Demonstration Project: Public Hearing Staff Report. Hearing 157, Docket R03-4, December 2003. (PDF)

Blumenberg, E., and Margy Waller. “The Long Journey to Work: A Federal Transportation Policy for Working Families.” Brookings Institution Series on Transportation Reform, July 2003. (PDF)

Ruben, Barbara. “A New Appreciation for Living in the City.” The Washington Post, DC Extra, T52, April 21, 2005.

Fox, R. K., and K. Rose. “Expanding Housing Opportunities in Washington, DC: The Case for Inclusionary Zoning.” PolicyLink Report, Fall 2003. (PDF - 1.7 MB)

Rivlin, Alice. “Homes for an Inclusive City: A Comprehensive Housing Strategy for Washington, DC.” Executive Summary. Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, April 2006.

Turner, Margery, et al. “Housing in the Nation’s Capital 2004.” Fannie Mae Foundation and The Urban Institute, 2004.

Turner, Margery. “An Equitable Housing Strategy for the District of Columbia.” Metropolitan Housing and Communities Center Brief no. 1, June 2004. (PDF)

Fuller, Steven. “The Economic Outlook for the Washington Area and the District of Columbia.” Center for Regional Analysis Forecast Report, Washington, DC, October 2004.

Holzer, Harry. What Employers Want: Job Prospects for Less-Educated Workers. New York, NY: Russel-Sage Foundation, 1996, pp. 1-6, 126-135. ISBN: 0871543915.

Turner, Margery, and Mark Rubin. “Geography of Low-Skilled Work and Workers.” The Urban Institute, Washington, DC, February 1, 1998.

Turner, Margery, and Mark Rubin. “Current Patterns of Employment in the Washington Metropolitan Area.” The Urban Institute, Washington, DC, May 1999. (PDF)

“Building Community Ownership in Neighborhood Revitalization.” Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD, 2005. (PDF)

Ross, Martha. “Neighborhood Economies.” Issue Scan. The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, 2004. (PDF)

Rubin, Mark, and Davis Kim. “Retail Challenges in Washington, DC: An Analysis of Six Retail Categories.” The Urban Institute, Washington, DC, June 2001. 

L15 Revisiting Planning Theory and Action

Required Readings

Krumholz, Norman. “Equitable Approaches to Local Economic Development.” Policy Studies Journal 27, no. 1 (1999): 83-95.

Holcomb, Briavel. “Place Marketing: Using Media to Promote Cities.” Chapter 2 in Imaging the City. Edited by Lawrence Vale and Sam Bass Warner, Jr. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research, 2001, pp. 34-40, 53-54. ISBN: 0882851705.

Arnstein, Sherry R. “A Ladder of Citizen Participation.” Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35, no. 4 (1969): 216-224.

Healey, P. “The communicative turn in planning theory and its implications for spatial strategy formation.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 23 (1996): 217-234.

Unit Five: Stakeholders, Agreements, and Planners in the Middle
L16 Negotiation and Facilitation: Stakeholder Analyses, Conflict and Consensus, Interested Parties vs. Neutrals

Required Readings

Susskind, Lawrence, and Jeffrey Cruikshank. Breaking the Impasse. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1987, pp. 3-15. ISBN: 0465007503.

Lewicki, Saunders, and Minton, eds. “Conflict.” In Essentials of Negotiation. Chicago, IL: Irwin, 1997, pp. 15-24. ISBN: 0072545828.

Fisher, Roger, and William Ury. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Penguin, 1991, introduction and chapters 1-4. ISBN: 0395631246.

Recommended Readings

Thompson, Leigh L. “Creativity and Problem Solving in Negotiation.” Chapter 8 in The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2004. ISBN: 0131407384.

S2 Out-of-class Negotiation Exercise, In Assigned Groups

Required Preparation

Use prep tool and role instructions.

L17 Debrief Negotiation Exercise

Required Readings

Briggs, Xavier de Souza. “We are all negotiators now.” The Community Problem-Solving Project @ MIT (2003).

Moore, Christopher. “Circle of Conflict.” In The Mediation Process. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1996, pp. 60-61. ISBN: 0787902489.

Tannen, Deborah. “The power of talk: Who gets heard and why.” In Negotiation. Edited by Lewicki, Saunders, and Minton. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 1999, pp. 160-173. ISBN: 025621591X.

Recommended Readings

Fisher, R., and W. Davis. “Six Basic Interpersonal Skills for a Negotiator’s Repertoire.” In Negotiation: Readings, Exercises, and Cases. Edited by R. J. Lewicki, D. M. Saunders, and J. W. Minton. Boston, MA: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1999. ISBN: 025621591X.

Unit Six: Human Diversity and Cities of Tomorrow
L18 Cities of Tomorrow, your Role and your Education

Required Readings

Sandercock, Leonie. “When strangers become neighbors: Managing cities of difference.” Planning Theory and Practice 1, no. 1 (2000): 13-30.

Briggs, Xavier de Souza. “Civilization in Color: The Multi-cultural City in Three Millennia.” City and Community 3, no. 4 (2004): 311-342.

Recommended Readings

Fainstein, Susan. “Cities and Diversity: Should We Want It? Can We Plan For It?Urban Affairs Review 41, no. 1 (September 2005): 3-19.

Sandercock, Leonie. “Towards a Planning Imagination for the 21st Century.” Journal of the American Planning Association 70, no. 2 (March 2004): 133-141.

L19 Course Review

Required Readings

Campbell, and Fainstein. “Debates define theory: Five questions of planning theory.” Readings in Planning Theory. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003, pp. 5-13. ISBN: 0631223479.

Lucy, William H. “APA’s Ethical Principles Include Simplistic Planning Theories.” Journal of the American Planning Assn 54, no. 2 (1988): 147-149.

L20 Final Exam  

Learning Resource Types
Lecture Notes
Activity Assignments