Please note that there are no readings for Ses #6, 10, 13-15, 18-21, and sessions after #23.


Course Introduction: Main Street Sites and Issues

Urban Neighborhood Decline: Causes, Consequences, Challenges

“National Trust for Historic Preservation, Revitalizing Urban Main Street.” Unpublished document.

Zielenbach, Sean. The Art of Revitalization. New York, NY: Garland Publishing, 2000, chapter 5, pp. 133-174. ISBN: 9780815335979.

Keating, W. Dennis, and Janet Smith. “Neighborhoods in Transition.” Chapter 2 in Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods. Edited by W. Dennis Keating, Norman Krumholz, and Philip Star. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1996, pp. 24-38. ISBN: 9780700607907.

Barnett, Jonathan. “How the Metropolis Split Apart.” In The Fractured Metropolis. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996, pp. 95-118. ISBN: 9780064302227.

2 New Orleans Background: Social, Political and Development History

Lewis, Peirce. New Orleans: The Making of an Urban Landscape. Chicago, IL: Center for American Places, 2009, pp. 1-36, 50-53, 65-70, 95-100, 124-129, 132-137, 143-147, and 154-171, figures 1-8, 11, 12, 15a, 15b, 16, 19, 20, 45, 46, 57, 58, and 63. ISBN: 9781930066601.

Hirsch, Arnold R. “Simply a Matter of Black and White: The Transformation of Race and Politics in 20th Century New Orleans.” In Creole New Orleans: Race and Americanization. Edited by Arnold R. Hirsch and Joseph Logsdon. Baton Rouge, IL: Louisiana State University Press, 1992, pp. 262-320. ISBN: 9780807117743.

3 Katrina Impact, Disaster Recovery and New Orleans’ Planning Process

Swenson, Dan. “ Anatomy of a Flood: How New Orleans flooded during Hurricane Katrina .” The Times-Picayune. August 12, 2015.

Nelson, Marla, Renia Ehrenfeucht, and Shirley Laska. “ Planning, Plans and People: Professional Expertise, Local Knowledge and Government Action in Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans .” Cityscape 9, no. 3 (2007): 23-52.

Webb, Gary R., Kathleen J. Tierney, and James M. Dahlhamer. “ Businesses and Disasters: Empirical Patterns and Unanswered Questions .” Disaster Research Center, 1999.

Eadie, C. E. “Earthquake Case Study: Loma Prieta in Santa Cruz and Watsonville, California.” In Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. Authored by K. C. Topping, C. C. Eadie, R. E. Deyle, and R. A. Smith. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Company, 2003. ISBN: 9781884829253.

District 7 Plans for Bywater-Marigny and St. Roch-St. Claude Neighborhoods .”

4 Urban Design and Development: Ways of Seeing and Listening

Jacobs, Allan. “Clues” and “Seeing Change.” In Looking at Cities. Authored by Allan Jacobs. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985, pp. 30-83 and 99-107. ISBN: 9780674538917.

Buy at MIT Press Lynch, Kevin. “A Walk Around the Block.” In City Sense and City Design: Writings and Projects of Kevin Lynch . Edited by Tridib Banerjee and Michael Southworth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. ISBN: 9780262620956.

Tietz, Michael B. “ Neighborhood Economics: Local Communities and Regional Markets .” Economic Development Quarterly 3, no. 2 (1989): 111-122.

Klein, William B. “Citizen Participation: Whose Vision Is It?” In Planning and Community Equity: A Component of APA’s Agenda for America’s Communities Program. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association, 1994. ISBN: 9781884829055.

Thomas, June Manning. “ Neighborhood Planning: Uses of Oral History .” Journal of Planning History 3, no. 1 (2004): 50-70.


Physical Design and Economic Planning Tools I

Preparation for Field Work

Economic Development: Theories of Retail/Identifying Retail Niches

Urban Design: Change in Neighborhood Commercial Districts

Moughtin, Cliff, J. C. Moughtin, Rafael Cuesta, Christine Sarris, and Paola Signoretta Laurea. “Analysis.” In Urban Design: Method and Techniques. Burlington, MA: Architectural Press, 2003. pp. 73-98. ISBN: 9780750657181.

Lopez, Guillermo. “Public Space Design.” Urban Land 65, no. 3 (March 2006): 60-64.

Waxman, Andy. In Utilizing Economic Theories of Retail to Revitalize Inner-City Neighborhood Business Districts: The Case of Upham’s Corner Main Streets . pp. 38-51 and 65-79, chapters 4 and 6.

Milder, N. David. Niche Strategies for Downtown Revitalization. Boonton, NJ: Alexander Communications Group. pp. 53-81. [Read the Introduction ( PDF - 7.0MB )]

The Renaissance Project. “St. Claude Avenue Main Street Application.”

St. Claude Avenue Main Street. “St. Claude Economic Restructuring Plan.”


Revitalization Strategies I and II

Zielenbach, Sean. In The Art or Revitalization: Improving Conditions in Distressed Inner-City Neighborhoods. New York, NY: Routledge, 2000, pp. 23-32, chapter 2. ISBN: 9780815335979.

Moe, Richard, and Carter Wilkie. In Changing Places: Rebuilding Community in the Age of Sprawl. New York, NY: Holt Paperbacks, 1999, pp. 100-141, chapter 4. ISBN: 9780805061840.

Chapple, Karen, and Rick Jacobus. Retail Trade as a Route to Neighborhood Revitalization, April 2008.

Larsen, Kristin. “ New Urbanism’s Role in Inner City Neighborhood Revitalization .” Housing Studies 20, no. 5 (2005): 795-813.

Currid, Elizabeth. “ How Art and Culture Happen in New York .” Journal of the American Planning Association 73, no. 4 (Autumn 2007): 454-467.

8 Project Discussion and Planning

Review the following master plans and revitalization plans. Take particular note of the scope of each project, the methodology used, the elements of the plan, and the level of detail offered.

a. “East Warren (Detroit) Commercial Revitalization: A Strategy to Realize Commercial Vitality.”

b. “Egleston Square Plan, Revitalizing Urban Main Streets Class 2003.” (Please see 11.439 Spring 2003 on OCW.)

c. “Broad Connections Plan, Revitalizing Urban Main Streets Class 2005.” (Please see 11.439 Spring 2005 on OCW.)

Stein, Stanley M., and Thomas L. Harper. “ Power, Trust and Planning .” Journal of Planning Education and Research 23, no. 2 (2003): 125-139.

Review New Orleans Master Plan and Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance Web Site and background on current New Orleans master plan process.


Economic Planning Tools II: Retail Market Analysis and Economic Planning

Economic Planning Tools III: Asset and Capacity Assessment

Karl Seidman Consulting Services. Downtown Salem Retail Market Study: Interim Report. pp. 1-38. ( PDF )

Urban Markets Initiative, et al. Downtown Detroit in Focus: A Profile of Market Opportunity .

Optional: Alderslade, Jamie, Johm Talmage, and Yusek Freeman. Measuring the Informal Economy-One Neighborhood at a Time . The Brookings Institution, September 2006.

Glickman, Norman J., and Lisa J. Servon. More than Bricks and Sticks: What is Community Development Capacity. CUPR Working Paper No. 132. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University 1997. ( PDF )

McKnight, John L., and John P. Kretzmann. Mapping Community Capacity. Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, 1996, pp. 1-21. ( PDF )

National Civic League. The Community Visioning and Strategic Planning Handbook, 2000, pp. 28 to 34. ( PDF - 1.1MB )


Urban Food Systems and Issues

Sustainable Neighborhoods and Commercial Districts

Work Session

Donofrio, Gregory Alexander. “ Feeding the City .” Gastronomica 7, no. 4 (Fall 2007): 30-41.

Schwartz, Jeffrey. “New Orleans Food Access.” Chapter 2 in Making Groceries: Food, Neighborhood Markets, and Neighborhood Recovery in Post-Katrina New Orleans . M.C.P. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2008. pp. 37-56.

Buy at MIT Press Barham, Elizabeth, David Lind, and Lewis Jett. “The Missouri Regional Cuisines Project: Connecting to Place in the Restaurant.” In Urban Place: Reconnecting with the Natural World . Edited by Peggy F. Barlett. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005, pp. 141-172. ISBN: 9780262524438. [ Read table of contents and sample chapters.]

Farr, Douglas. “Sustainable Neighborhoods.” Chapter 7 in Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design with Nature. New York, NY: Wiley, 2007, pp. 125-167. ISBN: 9780471777519.

Beatley, Timothy. “Building a Sustainable Economy.” Chapter 7 in Green Urbanism: Learning from European Cities. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999, pp. 369-404. ISBN: 9781559636827.

Karlenzig, Warren. How Green is Your City? The SustainLane U.S. City Rankings. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 2007, pp. 1-9 and 117-118, skim category rankings pp. 171-197. ISBN: 9780865715950.

U.S. Green Building Council. LEED for Neighborhood Development . Review rating program descriptions and skim pilot ratings system.


Physical Design Tools II: Streetscape

Physical Design Tools III: Image and Neighborhood Form

Buy at MIT Press Hayden, Dolores. “Urban Landscape History: The Sense of Place and the Politics of Space,” and “Place Memory and Urban Preservation.” In The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780262581523.

Buy at MIT Press Jacobs, Allan B. “Requirements for Great Streets,” and “Qualities that Contribute.” In Great Streets . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. pp. 270-308. ISBN: 9780262600231.

National Trust for Historic Preservation. “Revitalizing Downtown.” pp. 43-47 and 51-58.

Talen, Emily, and Cliff Ellis. “ Beyond Relativism: Reclaiming the Search for Good City Form .” Journal of Planning Education and Research 22, no. 1 (2002): 36-49.

Salvesen, David. “ The Making of Place .” Urban Land 61, no. 7 (July 2002): 36-41.

For reference

Community Partners Consultants, Inc. “The Arts District Today,” and “The Arts District Vision.” Chapters 2 and 3 in Worcester, Massachusetts Arts District Master Plan . Worcester, MA: Arts District Task Force and the City of Worcester, June 2002.

Main Street Mobile, AL Public Space Report for reference of a southern city streetscape approach. Report completed in conjunction with the Project for Public Spaces, Inc.

“Preserve Alabama, Alabama Main Street Guidelines.”

Hoyle, Cynthia L. “Traffic.” American Planning Association, Planning Advisory Service, 1995.

Sendich, Emina. “Planning and Urban Design Standards.” American Planning Association. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. ISBN: 9780471475811.


Policies and Interventions I: Development

Policies and Interventions II: Design and Zoning Guidelines

Community Partners Consultants, Inc. “The Economics Benefits.” Chapter 4 in Worcester, Massachusetts Arts District Master Plan . Worcester, MA: Arts District Task Force and City of Worcester, July 2002, pp. 51-58.

Goody, Clancy, and Associates. “Strategic Revitalization Plan for Central Avenue, Albany.” City of Albany, NY, September 2000, pp. 59-67.

Ferguson, Bruce W., Mary M. Miller, and Cynthia Liston. “Retail Revitalization.” Economic Development Commentary 19, no. 4 (Winter 1996).

Hernandez, Manuel Martinez. Impact of Commercial Development on Inner City Revitalization: An Analysis of Projects in Boston. M.C.P. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2001, pp. 7-19 and 113-126.

Brandes Gratz, Roberta. “Rebuilding Place, Valuing Transit.” Chapter 5 in Cities Back from the Edge. Authored by Roberta Brandes Gratz and Norman Mintz. New York, NY: Wiley, 2000, pp. 113-137. ISBN: 9780471361244.

Hinshaw, Mark. “Design Review, APA Planning Advisory Service Report #454.” February 1995, pp. 19-32.

Case Scheer, Brenda. “Introduction: The Debate on Design Review.” In Design Review: Challenging Urban Aesthetic Control. Authored by Brenda C. Scheer and Wolfgang F. E. Preiser. New York, NY: Springer, 1998, pp. 1-10. ISBN: 9780412983511.

For reference

Boston Main Streets Commercial District Guidelines, 1999.

Various Design and Development Guidelines.

17 Synthesis and Reflection

Edelman, Murray. “Space and the Social Order.” Journal of Architectural Education 32, no. 2 (1978): 2-7.

Wilson, Phoebe Wall. “A Day in the Life of a Neighborhood Place.” In Everyday Urbanism: Updated and Expanded. Edited by Margaret Crawford and Kaliski John. New York, NY: The Monacelli Press, 2008, pp. 120-135. ISBN: 9781580932011.

Sanoff, Henry. Community Participation in Design and Planning. New York, NY: John Wiley, 2000, pp. 8-14, 37-104. ISBN: 9780471355458.


Policies and Interventions III: Business Development, Retention, and Attraction

Policies and Interventions IV: Marketing and Promotion

Seidman, Karl F. In Revitalizing Commerce for American Cities: A Practitioner’s Guide to Urban Main Street Programs . Fannie Mae Foundation, 2004, chapter 5 and 6.

Toups, Catherine, and James H. Carr. “ Reimaging Distressed Communities: A Strategy to Reverse Decline and Attract Investors .” Fannie Mae Foundation, 2000.

Hoffman, Lily M. “ The Marketing of Diversity in the Inner City: Tourism and Regulation in Harlem .” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27, no. 2 (2003): 286-299.

Rypkema, Donovan P. “Commercial Gentrification: Beyond the Rhetoric.” Talk given at Urban Main Street Forum, Boston, MA. June 25, 2002.


Policies and Interventions V: Safety and Sanitation

Policies and Interventions VI: Capacity Building and Implementation

National Crime Prevention Council. “Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Guidebook.” pp. 3-28.

Eastside Neighborhood Development Corporation. Payne Arcade Main Street Program Crime and Safety Committee. “Application for MetLife Foundation Community-Police Partnership Award.” Unpublished document.

Houston, Lawrence O., Jr. “BIDS: Business Improvement Districts.” Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute and International Downtown Association, 1997, pp. 59-72.

Thacher, David. “The Community Security Initiative: Lessons Learned.” pp. 1-30. ( PDF )

Stokvis, Jack R., and James A. Cloar. “CRM: Applying Shopping Center Techniques to Downtown Retailing.” Urban Land, April 1991, pp. 7-11.

Houston, Lawrence O., Jr. Business Improvement Districts. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute and International Downtown Association, 1997, pp. 8-19.

Stokes, Robert. “ Business Improvement Districts and Inner City Revitalization: The Case of Philadelphia’s Frankford Special Services District .” International Journal of Public Administration 29, nos. 1-3 (2006): 173-186.

Vidal, Avis, Sudhir Venkatesh, Prudence Brown, and Robert Chaskin. Building Community Capacity. Edison, NJ: Aldine Transaction, 2001, pp 123-157. ISBN: 9780202306407.

Goody, Clancy, and Associates. “Strategic Revitalization Plan for Central Avenue Albany.” City of Albany, September 2000. pp. 73-93.

Course Info

Learning Resource Types

assignment Problem Sets
notes Lecture Notes
group_work Projects with Examples
assignment Written Assignments