12.097 | January IAP 2006 | Undergraduate
Chemical Investigations of Boston Harbor


Final Exam

Students are required to complete a take-home exam due on the last day of class. The exam is an open book take home exam, and students must answer any three of the following four questions. It should be written in about three hours.

  1. Consider the proposition that the institutions of the firm change with the stage of economic development, in terms of their structure, leadership and mode of competition. How would the “stage of development” be defined in such a theory? What types of firms are likely to emerge in each of these stages? Are these stages likely to be the same in all countries and all periods of history? In your answer, consider specifically the diversified business group, the role of government in promoting these groups, and why they are stronger at some times and in some places than others.
  2. In Peddlers and Princes, Geertz builds an argument about the role of the firm in economic development which implies both a definition and theory of the firm and a definition and a theory of development. What are those theories? How do they compare to the stage theory suggested in the question above? How do they compare to newer theories of the firm such as Oliver Hart’s emphasis on residual property rights and Jenson’s emphasis on incentive structures which resolve the principal agent problem? Geertz acknowledges that development in Indonesia is ultimately dependent upon large state enterprises in industries with enormous economies of scale; is this consistent with his focus on the micro structures of the small towns of Modjokuto and Tabanan?
  3. Enormous emphasis has been placed in recent debates about economic organization on the need for “flexible” economic institutions. Why does the economy need flexibility? Why should the market be more flexible than the large, bureaucratic firm? In terms of this debate, how does one think about network organizations? Are networks a third type of organization or simply a half-way point between market and hierarchies?
  4. What is meant by the term “tacit” knowledge? How would its existence affect the meaning and value of non-tacit (explicit) knowledge? How would the existence of tacit knowledge affect the operation of the economy and the optimal set of institutional arrangements required for its operation?

Week 1
1 Introduction and Overview - Kujawinski Historical Perspective on Sampling Equipment for Oceanic Research - Clifford/Tripp Science - Prepare for Field Trip
2 Field Trip to Boston Harbor/ Buzzards Bay
3 Physical Parameters of The Coastal Ocean - Kujawinski Overview of Basic Ocean Sensors - White Science - Density Structure of BH/BB
4 Biological Productivity - Kujawinski Instrumentation Basics - Hover Engineering - Build/Test Sensor
5 WHOI Tour 1: WHOI’s Chemical Instrumentation Facilities
Week 2
6 Nutrients (Overview), Nitrogen Cycle - Kujawinski Power Sources for Oceanographic Systems - Hover Science - Nitrate Analyses

Engineering - Deploy Sensor

7 Error Analysis for Lab Measurements to Date - Kujawinski Time-series Analyses - Hover Science - Dissolved Oxygen Titrations
8 Carbon Cycle (Overview) - Kujawinski Acoustics Overview - Hover Engineering - Recover Sensor Analyze Data
9 WHOI Tour 2: WHOI’s Coastal Oceanography Labs
Week 3
10 Trace Metals (Nutrients vs. Toxins) - Kujawinski Engineering for The Marine Environment - Hover/White Science - Phosphate Analysis

Engineering - Deploy Sensor

11 Analytical Techniques of Chemical Oceanography - Kujawinski Platforms I - Satellites, Buoys, Cabled Observatories - White Science - Caffeine Analysis
12 Anthropogenic Impacts on the Coastal Zone - Organic Pollutants - Kujawinski Platforms II - Vehicles (Manned Submersibles, ROVs, AUVs) - White Engineering - Recover Sensor Analyze Data
13 Putting it All Together - Kujawinski Advanced Sensors (Spectroscopy) - White Engineering - Raman Lab
14 WHOI Tour 3: WHOI’s Ocean Engineering / Instrumentation Labs