16.682 | Spring 2006 | Undergraduate

Prototyping Avionics

Lecture Notes

1 (Re)Introduction to design (PDF) Course introduction and overview. A revisit of the design process and where new prototyping techniques fall within it.
2 Review of E&M (PDF) An expedited review of the main concepts of E&M relevant to prototyping electronics. Concepts of voltage, current, resistance, capacitance, and inductance and their major relations: V = IR, P = IV = I 2 R, I= CdV/dt, V = LdI/dt.
3 Discrete components (PDF)

Review of the primary discrete components (assume prior introduction in Unified): resistors, capacitors, inductors, and diodes. Review of first and second order systems created with passive components. Emphasis on voltage dividers and low-pass filters.

Review/introduction of amplifiers: emphasis on general equations to implement different types of circuits.

4 Discrete components: Transistors (PDF) Review/introduce transistors and their primary different types: NPN/PNP, MOSFETs. Emphasis on the general operation, primarily on their behavior as it affects the digital world, rather than transient behavior.
5 Power components (PDF)

Review general concepts of voltage and current supplies.

Understand the general operation and how to utilize: linear regulator, inductor based regulators, integrated switching regulators.

6 Digital components (PDF)

Review/introduction of the basic “gates” that comprise the digital world: and, or, nor, xor, multiplexers, registers, latches, and flip-flops (in general what the 74 series of digital components can do). Maintain all material on a “single-bit” level at this point.

Introduce the concept of truth tables for these elements; teach the ability to create their own truth-tables.

7 Digital thinking

Introduce students to thinking in the digital world: bit/nibble/byte/word concepts, octal/decimal/hexadecimal systems, bitwise vs. byte wise operations, word operations, data types representation.

Concepts of stacks, queues, pointers, and memory operations.

8 Processors General purpose processor architectures: processing unit, stack, program memory, data memory, peripherals, interfaces.
9 Interfacing digital and analog Introduce concept of digital/analog conversion (both ways). Present large array of available hardware that can be interfaced to processors.
10 Schematics: Introduction

Introduce the schematic capture program: creation of schematic with existing parts on a single page.

Part placement, net naming, component numbering, bill of materials, netlist creation.

11 Schematics: Parts

Introduction to parts libraries: creation/management of components.

Component entry for schematic operations– pin creation, arrangement, naming.

Intro to the ability to simulate a circuit (talk about it only, will not simulate).

12 Schematics: Advanced tools Development of more complex schematics: multiple pages, ports, buses, multiple channels.
13 Schematics: Finishing design Explanation of board level annotation, netlisting, and reports.
14 What is a PCB?

Introduction to all the parts of a PCB.

Surface mounts vs. through-hole components. Hole sizes, drills, and mounting holes: specifying for all layers. Annular rings, clearance, and thermal relieve.

15 PCB design: Basics Creating the first PCB: board outline, grid setup, clearances setup, nets setup, the ratnest, part placement.
16 PCB design: Routing Routing: manual routing – take care of noise, ground lines, power lines. Automatic routing: when to use it.
17 PCB design: Finishing Error checking, plotting/printing, file output, manufacturing details.
18 Documentation Guide students in the development of documentation which clearly describes the functionality of the avionics board, including correct use of timing diagrams, truth tables, ratings, and plots.
19 Assembly tips Provide students with best methods to assemble (soldering techniques) a new PCB.
20 Testing and debugging PCB’s

Best methods to test and debug a prototype PCB: power check, critical net check, part matching, part sorting, assembly in stages.

The first time you power up a new PCB: what to look for.

21 Complex embedded systems Introduction of Complex Embedded Systems: high end processors, FPGA’s, high-speed circuits, etc.

Course Info

As Taught In
Spring 2006
Learning Resource Types
Problem Sets
Lecture Notes