Benjamin, Daniel, and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror: Radical Islam’s War Against America. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Random House, 2003. ISBN: 9780812969849.
Doenecke, Justus D., and John E. Wilz. From Isolation to War, 1931-1941. 3rd ed. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 2003. ISBN: 9780882959924.
Van Evera, Stephen. Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780801484575.
Gaddis, John Lewis. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1982. ISBN: 9780195030976.
Herring, George. America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975. 4th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 2001. ISBN: 9780072536188.
Ikenberry, G. John, ed. American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays. 5th ed. New York, NY: Longman, 2004. ISBN: 9780321159731. (Abbreviated in table as AFP.)
Kinzer, Stephen, and Stephen Schlesinger. Bitter Fruit: The Story of the American Coup in Guatemala. Exp. ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. ISBN: 9780674075900.
Paterson, Thomas G., J. Garry Clifford, and Kenneth J. Hagan. American Foreign Relations: A History Since 1895. 5th ed. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin, 1999. ISBN: 9780395938867, 9780395938874.
Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th ed. Revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780226816272.
Readings denoted below with an “H” are handed out during the class session listed.
|Part 1: Theories of U.S. Foreign Policy|
|1||Hypotheses, Laws, Theories and Case Studies||
Van Evera, Stephen. “Hypotheses, Laws and Theories: A User’s Guide.” In Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science. pp. 7-48.
Van Evera, Stephen. “What is a Political Science Dissertation?” In Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science. pp. 89-96.
|2||Theories of American Foreign Policy||
Note: a glance at the section introductions in Ikenberry, AFP. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman Press, pp. 59-60, 137-138, 203-204, 297-298, 395-395, 465-466, 573-574. ISBN: 9780321084729, will ease the following reading.
Systemic Explanations: “The Environment Governs Conduct."
Jervis, Robert. “Offense, Defense, and The Security Dilemma.” In International Politics, by Robert J. Art and Robert Jervis. 3rd ed. NY: HarperCollins, 1992, pp. 146-169.
Waltz, Kenneth. “Anarchic Orders and Balances of Power.” In AFP, by Ikenberry. pp. 60-83.
Leffler, Melvyn P. “The American Conception of National Security and the Beginning of the Cold War, 1945-1948.” In AFP, by Ikenberry. pp. 84-111.
Walt, Stephen. “Explaining Alliance Formation.” Chapter 2 in The Origins of Alliances. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990, pp. 17-49.
Cohen, Benjamin. The Question of Imperialism. NY: Basic Books, 1973, pp. 36-72, 121-131.
National Values and Domestic Institutions as Causes
Huntington, Samuel. “American Ideals versus American Institutions.” In AFP, by Ikenberry. pp. 214-247 (pp. 204-237 in 4th ed).
Isaacson, Walter, and Evan Thomas. The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made. NY: Simon and Schuster, 1986, pp. 171-173, 731-733.
Hersh, Seymour. The Price of Power. NY: Summit, 1983, pp. 108-111.
Lowi, Theodore. “Making Democracy Safe for the World: On Fighting the Next War.” In AFP, by Ikenberry. 1st ed. ISBN: 9780673398154. (sadly omitted from later editions), read only pp. 268-273 (the pages on “policy overselling.")
Review again here:
Bureaucratic Behavior and Pathology as Explanation
Allison, Graham. “Conceptual Models of the Cuban Missile Crisis.” In AFP, by Ikenberry. pp. 402-446. (pp. 396-441 in 4th ed).
Thompson, James C., Jr. “How Could Vietnam Happen? An Autopsy.” In AFP, by Ikenberry. 4th ed. pp. 454-463 (sadly omitted from later editions).
Halperin, Morton, Priscilla Clapp, and Arnold Kanter. Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings, 1972, pp. 26-62.
Misperception as Explanation
Jervis, Robert. “Hypotheses on Misperception.” In AFP, by Ikenberry. pp. 462-484. (pp. 466-488 in 4th ed).
Jervis, Robert. Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton: Princeton U. Press, 1976, pp. 58-84.
Judis, John. “The Japanese Megaphone: Foreign Influences on Foreign Policymaking.” In The Domestic Sources of American Foreign Policy: Insights and Evidence. Edited by Eugene R. Wittkopf. 2nd ed. NY: St. Martin’s, 1994, pp. 95-105.
Barber, Lionel. “The Selling of an African Conflict.” Financial Times, March 16, 1990. And
Lind, Michael. “The Israel Lobby.” Prospect, April 1, 2002. And
Birnbaum, Jeffrey. “The Influence Merchants.” Fortune, December 7, 1998, pp. 134-152. (But read only pp. 134-135 and the chart on 137.)
Pearson, David. “The Media and Government Deception.” Propaganda Review (Spring 1989): 6-11.
Jordan, Eason. “The News We Kept To Ourselves.” New York Times, April 11, 2003.
Kristoff, Nicholas. “Save Our Spooks.” New York Times, May 30, 2003.
Beschloss, Michael R. “Foreign Policy’s Big Moment.” New York Times, April 11, 1999, pp. 4, 17.
Janis, Irving. “Escalation of the Vietnam War: How Could it Happen?” In AFP, by Ikenberry. 4th ed. pp. 544-572 (sadly omitted from later editions.)
Public Opinion Dynamics as Explanation
Roskin, Michael. “From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam: Shifting Conceptual Paradigms and Foreign Policy.” In AFP, by Ikenberry. pp. 312-333 (pp. 298-319 in 4th ed).
Theories of the Consequences of U.S. Foreign Policy: The Domino Theory, The Credibility Theory, Theories and Factual Assumptions about Nationalism
|Part 2: American Grand Strategies|
|3||Contending Grand Strategies Past and Present||
Cold War Era Strategy
Gaddis, John Lewis. “George F. Kennan and the Strategy of Containment.” Chapter 2 in Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy. NY: Oxford U. Press, 1982, pp. 25-53.
Van Evera, Stephen. “American Intervention in the Third World: Less Would Be Better.” Security Studies 1, no. 1 (Autumn 1991): 1-24.
Post-Cold War Era Strategy
Posen, Barry R., and Andrew L. Ross. “Competing U.S. Grand Strategies.” In Strategy and Force Planning. Edited by Strategy and Force Planning Faculty. Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 1995, pp. 115-134.
Tyler, Patrick E. “U.S. Strategy Calls For Insuring No Rivals Develop.” New York Times, March 8, 1992. And
Friedman, Thomas L. “U.S. Vision of Foreign Policy Reversed.” New York Times, Sept. 22, 1993.
Art, Robert J. “A Defensible Defense: America’s Grand Strategy After the Cold War.” International Security 15, no. 4 (Spring 1991): 5-53.
Gholz, Eugene, Daryl G. Press, and Harvey M. Sapolsky. “Come Home America: The Strategy of Restraint in the Face of Temptation.” International Security 21, no. 4 (Spring 1997): 5-48.
Sanger, David E. “Bush to Formalize A Defense Policy of Hitting First.” New York Times, June 17, 2002.
Lieber, Keir A., and Robert J. Lieber. “The Bush National Security Strategy.” U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda, An Electronic Journal of the U.S. Department of State 7, no. 4 (December 2002).
For more discussion of the 2002 U.S. strategy statement see the “Defense Strategy Review Page” of the Project on Defense Alternatives.
(H) Ikenberry, G. John. “America’s Imperial Ambition.” In AFP, by Ikenberry. pp. 564-575.
(H) “American Imperialism, Embraced.” The New York Times Magazine, December 9, 2001. (2 pages)
Lind, Michael. Made in Texas: George W. Bush and the Southern Takeover of American Politics. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp. 128-153.
Lieber, Robert. “The Neoconservative Conspiracy Theory: Pure Myth.” Chronicle of Higher Education. May 2, 2003.
The War on Terror
Other National Security Policy Issues
“The Uranium Underground.” Time, December 17, 2001, pp. 40-45.
Benjamin, Daniel, and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror. 2nd ed. NY: Random House, 2003, pp. 38-55, 61-68, 91-94, 419-489.
Pages 38-55, 62-68, 91-94 describe the Islamist currents of thinking that spawned Osama Bin Laden’s Al Qaeda. Al Qaeda’s violence stems from a stream of Islamist thought going back to ibn Taymiyya, a bellicose Islamic thinker from the 13th century; to Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792), the harsh and rigid shaper of modern Saudi Arabian Islam; to Rashid Rida (1866-1935) and Hassan al-Banna (?-1949); and above all to Sayyid Qutb (?-1966), the shaper of modern Islamism. Taymiyya, al-Wahhab and Qutb are covered here. Covered also (pp. 91-94) is the frightening rise of apocalyptic thinking in the Islamic world. What causes the murderous thinking described here?
Pages 419-446 is a terrifying survey of the rise of nihilistic madness in a number of the world’s great religions. Isn’t the millennialist thinking described here likely at some point to lead believers in these views to use weapons of mass destruction on cities? What should the U.S. do about this threat??
Pages 447-489 surveys and evaluates Bush administration counter-terror strategies.
Not assigned but also valuable are pp. 219-393, a survey of Clinton administration counter-terror strategies and policies. They are recommended.
Chyba, Christopher F. “Toward Biological Security.” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 3 (May/June 2002): 122-137.
Flynn, Stephen. “The Neglected Home Front.” Foreign Affairs 83, no. 5 (September/October 2004): 20-33.
Chait, Jonathan. “The 9/10 President.” New Republic, March 10, 2003, pp. 18-23.
Blumenthal, Ralph. “Getting the Intelligence Services a Vulnerable Nation Needs.” New York Times, September 8, 2002.
Allison, Graham. “How to Stop Nuclear Terror.” Foreign Affairs 83, no. 1 (January/February 2004): 64-74.
“Nuclear Breakout.” New York Times, July 27, 2003. And
The advance of science has a fearsome by product: we are discovering ever more powerful means of destruction. These destructive powers are being democratized: the mayhem that only major states can do today may lie within the capacity of millions of individuals in the future unless we somehow change course. Deterrence works against states but will fail against crazed non-state organizations or individuals. How can the spread of destructive powers be controlled?
We will return to this subject in the last class period in December.
For more on controlling the longterm bioweapons danger see: The Controlling Dangerous Pathogens Project.
|5||Other Policy Issues and Debates||
On Ethics and Human Rights:
Gelb, Leslie H., and Justine A. Rosenthal. “The Rise of Ethics in Foreign Policy.” Foreign Affairs 82, no. 3 (May/June 2003): 2-7.
On Supporting National Self-Determination:
Lind, Michael. “In Defense of Liberal Nationalism.” Foreign Affairs 73, no. 3 (May/June 1994): 87-99.
On Saving Failed States:
Rotberg, Robert I. “Failed States in a World of Terror.” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 4 (July/August 2002): 127-141.
Kaplan, Robert D. “Continental Drift: Africa’s Dysfunctional Politics.” New Republic (December 28, 1992): 15-20.
Crocker, Chester. “The Lessons of Somalia.” Foreign Affairs 74, no. 3 (May/June 1995): 2-8.
On “Preventive Diplomacy” (Action to Forestall Wars and Human Rights Horrors):
Kaufmann, Chaim. “See No Evil.” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 4 (July/August 2002): 142-149.
Cooper, Glenda. “U.S. Memos on Rwanda Cited.” Boston Globe, August 23, 2001.
Barber, Ben. “Feeding Refugees, or War?” Foreign Affairs 76, no. 4 (July/August 1997): 8-14.
Kristoff, Nicholas. “Reign of Terror.” New York Times, September 12, 2004.
Does this Subject Need More Study?
On Intervention to Promote Democracy:
Diamond, Larry. “What Went Wrong in Iraq.” Foreign Affairs 83, no. 5 (September/October 2004): 34-56.
Zeller, Tom. “Building Democracy is Not a Science.” New York Times, April 27, 2003.
Nasar, Sylvia. “It’s Never Fair to Just Blame the Weather.” New York Times, January 17, 1993.
Noble, Kenneth. “Democracy Brings Turmoil in Congo.” New York Times, January 31, 1994.
On U.S. Defense Policy:
Jordan, Amos A., William J. Taylor, and Lawrence J. Korb. “The Evolution of American National Security Policy,” and “Nuclear Strategy.” Chapters 4 and 11 in American National Security: Policy and Process. 4th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993, pp. 63-86, 233-246.
Korb, Lawrence J. “U.S. Defense Spending After the Cold War: Fact and Fiction.” In Holding the Line: U.S. Defense Alternatives for the 21st Century. Edited by Cindy Williams. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.
On Protecting the Global Commons—e.g., The Global Environment and Global Public Health:
Revkin, Andrew C. “Scientists Say a Quest for Clean Energy Must Begin Now.” New York Times, November 1, 2002.
Bradsher, Keith. “Bird Flu is Back, Raising Fear of Spread Among Humans.” New York Times, August 30, 2004.
Segue to Cases: The Case Study Method. How Should Case Studies Be Performed?
George, Alexander L., and Timothy J. McKeown. “Case Studies and Theories of Organizational Decision Making.” In Advances in Information Processing in Organizations. Vol. 2. Greenwich, Ct.: JAI Press, 1985, pp. 21-58.
Lijphart, Arend. “Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method.” In APSR. Vol. 65, 1971, pp. 682-693.
Van Evera, Stephen. “What Are Case Studies? How Should They Be Performed?” In Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science. pp. 49-88.
Bennett, Andrew. “Lost in Translation: Big (n) Misinterpretations of Case Study Research.”
Broad, William J. “Crater Supports Idea on Extinction.” New York Times, August 14, 1992.
“The C.I.A.’s El Salvador.” New York Times, December 17, 1993.
Leven, David. “In Texas, the Death Penalty Still Fails to Deter.” New York Times, Sept. 19, 1993.
Shapiro, Ian. “A Model That Pretends to Explain Everything.” New York Times, February 26, 2000. And
Walt, Stephen M. “Rigor or Rigor Mortis? Rational Choice and Security Studies.” International Security 23, no. 4 (Spring 1999): 5-48.
Also of interest are criticisms of this piece published in the Fall 1999 issue of International Security.
Please find online a syllabus on qualitative methods from the Arizona State University Qualitative Methods Institute (January 2002) and other syllabi on the case method from qualitative methods taught around the country. Check them out to see how the qualitative methods are taught around the country.
In the past the “methods” field in political science was often assumed to consist solely of large-n (statistical) methods. While statistics was a required course at most schools, case study methodology often wasn’t even taught. This is changing, as these syllabi illustrate.
For more on Qualitative Methods.
The Arizona State University Qualitative Methods Institute runs a valuable winter student seminar (all expenses paid). Inquire about it. Maybe you can go.
|Part 3: Case Histories: American Wars, Crises and Interventions|
|6||The Filipino-Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II||
Paterson, Thomas G., J. Garry Clifford, and Kenneth J. Hagan. American Foreign Relations: A History Since 1895. 5th ed. 2000, pp. 11-27 (middle) (or pp. 1-34 of 4th ed.)
Healy, David. U.S. Expansionism: The Imperialist Urge in the 1890s. Madison: U. of Wisconsin Press, 1970. Chapter 3, first part of chapter 6 (pp. 48-67, 110-113).
Paterson, Thomas G., J. Garry Clifford, and Kenneth J. Hagan. American Foreign Relations: A History Since 1895. 5th ed. 2000, pp. 67-92, 103-107. (pp. 79-111, 123-127 in the 4th ed. 1995).
Doenecke and Wilz. From Isolation to War, 1931-1941. 3rd ed. pp. 1-38, 82-169.
Russett, Bruce M. No Clear and Present Danger: A Skeptical View of the U.S. Entry Into World War II. NY: Harper and Row, 1972, pp. 11-43.
Utley, Jonathan G. Going to War With Japan 1937-1941. Knoxville: U. of Tennessee Press, 1985, pp. 151-156. And
|8||The Outbreak of the Pacific War, 1941|
|9||The Cold War, Korea, and the 1950s||
The Cold War and Korea
Gaddis. Strategies of Containment. pp. vii-24, 54-197. Review also pp. 25-53 (assigned several weeks ago).
Gaddis, John Lewis. “The Emerging Post-Revisionist Synthesis on the Origins of the Cold War.” Diplomatic History 7, no. 3 (Summer 1983): 171-190.
Gaddis, John Lewis. “The Tragedy of Cold War History.” Diplomatic History 17, no. 1 (Winter 1993): 1-17.
Leffler, Melvyn P. “Inside Enemy Archives.” Foreign Affairs 75, no. 4 (July/August 1996): 120-135.
Matray, James I. “Civil is a Dumb Name for a War.” Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations Newsletter 26, no. 4 (December 1995): 1-15.
Combs, Jerald A. American Diplomatic History: Two Centuries of Changing Interpretations. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983, pp. 197-198, 258-281.
The present changes our understanding of the past. Should history work this way?
Students interested in the writing of history and in the creation of political ideas should explore further in this excellent book, now sadly out of print. (More of it is assigned below.)
Adventures in The Archives
Weiner, Tim. “Keeping the Secrets that Everyone Knows.” New York Times, October 30, 1994.
As preparation for the Adventure please also consult Prof. Marc Trachtenberg’s website on history methods. There look at two memos he wrote on interpreting declassified documents and on how to do Cold War history. They are listed on his home page as “A discussion of declassification analysis,” and “A practical guide to doing Cold War history.”
The Indochina War, 1945-1975
The Iraq War of 1991
Herring. America’s Longest War. Chapters 4 and 7. 4th ed. pp. 131-169, 271-320.
Sanders, Sol W. and William Henderson. “The Consequences of ‘Vietnam.” Orbis 21, no. 1 (Spring 1977): 61-76.
Clifford, Clark, and Richard Holbrooke. Counsel to the President. NY: Random House, 1991, pp. 612-614.
Review again Janis. “Groupthink,” and Thompson. “How Could Vietnam, Happen?” assigned above.
Combs, Jerald A. American Diplomatic History: Two Centuries of Changing Interpretations. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983, pp. 299-300, 367-383.
Blachman, Morris J. “The Stupidity of Intelligence.” In Readings in American Foreign Policy: A Bureaucratic Perspective. Edited by Morton H. Halperin and Arnold Kantor. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973, pp. 328-334.
The “intelligence to please” problem has long been with us. We saw “intelligence to please” in U.S. estimates of Iraqi WMD in 2003. And we saw it earlier in Vietnam, says Blachman. How can it be cured? Should it be studied?
Pollack, Kenneth. The Threatening Storm: The Case for Invading Iraq. NY: Random House, 2002, pp. 11-54.
|11||Other U.S. Third World Interventions||
Gil, Federico. “The Interventionist Era, 1904-1933.” Chapter 4 in Latin American-United States Relations. NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971, pp. 86-116.
Barnet, Richard J. “The Subversion of Undesirable Governments.” Chapter 10 in Intervention and Revolution: America’s Confrontation with Insurgent Movements Around the World. NY: Meridian, 1972, pp. 264-297.
A short history of some of the better-known CIA covert operations. Are such operations effective? Under what circumstances? Against what kinds of regimes?
Kinzer and Schlesinger. Bitter Fruit: The Untold Story of the American Coup in Guatemala. pp. xi-xv, 65-117.
Bill, James A. “Petroleum Politics and the American Intervention of 1953.” Chapter 2 in The Eagle and the Lion: The Tragedy of American-Iranian Relations. New Haven: Yale U. Press, 1988, pp. 51-97.
Schraeder, Peter J. “Paramilitary Intervention.” Chapter 8 in Intervention Into the 1990s. Edited by Peter J. Schraeder. 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1992, pp. 131-151.
|Part 4: Conclusion|
The Future of American Foreign Policy
Huntington, Samuel P. “The Coming Clash of Civilizations: Or, the West Against the Rest.” New York Times, June 6, 1993, pp. E19.
Bernstein, Richard, and Ross H. Munro. “The Coming Conflict with America.” Foreign Affairs 76, no. 2 (March/April 1997): 18-32.
Freeman, Chas. W., Jr. “Preventing War in the Taiwan Strait.” Foreign Affairs 77, no. 4 (July/August 1998): 6-11.
Agha, Hussein, and Robert Malley. “The Last Negotiation.” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 3 (May/June 2002): 10-19.
Klinkenborg, Verlyn. “Be Afraid. Be Very Afraid.” New York Times Book Review, May 30, 2004.
Browne, John. “Beyond Kyoto.” Foreign Affairs 83, no. 4 (July/August 2004): 20-32.
Kristof, Nicholas D. “The Nuclear Shadow.” New York Times, August 14, 2004.
Sanger, David. “The North Korean Uranium Challenge.” New York Times, 5/24/04.
“Nuclear Breakout.” New York Times, July 27, 2003. And
What policy toward the spread of weapons of mass destruction should the U.S. pursue?
When does preventive war make sense?
Prestowitz, Clyde. “Why Don’t We Listen More.” Washington Post, July 7, 2002.
Newsom, David D. “Foreign Policy and Academia.” Foreign Policy, no. 101 (Winter 1995-96): 52-67.
Raymond, Gregory A. “Foreign Policy Evaluation: Adding Civism to International Education.” International Studies Notes 17, no. 3 (Fall 1992): 17-21.
Van Evera, Stephen. “Professional Ethics.” In Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science. pp. 117-121.